Flashcards in Chapter 42 Deck (61):
Hemolymph goes directly into the organs. This system does not reuse the hemolymph used to transfer O2 to organs
Open circulatory system
Hemoglobin/Blood is confined to vessels and is distinct from interstitial fluid. This system reuses blood and continues to recirculate it. Vessels go back to heart before to body
Closed circulatory system
Do humans have an open or closed circulatory system?
What types of animals have double circulation?
Amphibians, reptiles, and mammals
What does the SA node do?
Sets rate and time at which cardiac muscle cells contract
Fluid lost by capillaries
What cellular element is found most in blood and transports O2 and CO2?
Erythrocytes (red blood cells)
Collects excess cholesterol so that it can be returned to the liver. Good for you.
Delivers cholesterol to cells for membrane production. Increases risks of heart attacks and stroke. Bad for you.
Takes place at alveoli (tips of bronchioles)
What is one similarity between platelets and erythrocytes?
Both do not contain a nucleus, so they will not survive for a long time
What causes sickle cell disease?
Erythrocytes in body do not form complete round cell, but are hook shaped and can get stuck in blood vessels-causes build up and can rupture. Abnormal hemoglobin proteins build up and can deform. Sickle cells can rupture or block blood vessels.
Plays big role in coagulation
Gas exchange supplies ____ for cellular respiration and disposes of ___
How fish gills work for respiration. Water passing over gills is going in the opposite direction as the fish's blood. The blood has less oxygen than the water.
Countercurrent exchange system
What kind of circulatory system does a a grasshopper have?
Frogs, fish, and pandas have ___
A grasshopper has ___
The vessel that supplies the heart muscle with oxygenated blood is the ___
Which chamber of the heart pumps oxygenated blood to the different parts of the body?
What is the main function of the circulatory system in the human body?
What are the 3 main types of blood vessels?
Arteries, veins, capillaries
What animals have a single circulatory system with a two-chambered heart?
Bony fishes, rays, sharks
When oxygen poor and oxygen rich blood are pumped separately from the right and left sides of the heart, that means ___
Blood is oxygenated as it is being moved to the organs
Single pump system
Separate sets of arteries and veins are used to first oxygenate the blood and then send it to the organs
Double pump system
What animals usually have a single pump circulatory system?
Fish and marine animals
List the leukocytes, greatest to least in amount present
Neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, basophils
Why is it important to expel CO2 from the body?
CO2 in water forms an acidic substance which lowers blood pH. This can denature enzymes and cause harm to body.
Example of endotherm
Mammals; birds. Require more O2 than ectotherms
Contraction/pumping of heart
What do animals that lack circulatory systems have? Functions both as a digestive system and a circulatory system
Why are the endothelial walls of the capillaries so thin?
So that gas exchange can happen easily and more efficiently
Help body fight off infections
True/false: in single circulation, blood leaving the heart passes through two capillary beds before returning
True/false: oxygenated blood goes through the left atrium and left ventricle, towards the aorta
Order of blood flow for a 4 chambered heart starting with right atrium?
Right atrium, right ventricle, lung capillaries, left atrium, left ventricle, systematic capillaries
Separate each atrium and ventricle
The epithelial tissue that lines blood vessels
Which have thicker walls, veins or arteries?
Why is diffusion only efficient over small distances?
The time it takes to diffuse is proportional to the square of the distance
What percentage of blood does plasma make up?
What percentage of blood do elements make up?
Positive pressure which forces air down the trachea
How amphibians breathe
Have 8/9 sacs which keep air flowing through lungs in one direction
How birds breathe
Negative pressure, which pulls air into the lungs
How mammals breathe
Frogs and amphibians have a ___ chamber heart
What do mammals have that allows them to be able to dive?
A blood clot within a vessel
Animal with a closed system with blood and positive pressure
Fish have a ___ chamber heart
Protein responsible for the transport of O2 in the body
A mixture that contains phospholipids and proteins used to clot the alveoli and reduce surface tension
Part of brain that directly controls breathing
What two factors are important for coagulation in the blood?
Calcium and vitamin k
Amphibians have a ___ chambered heart
Returns fluid that leaks out of the capillaries
Platelets and erythrocytes do not have a ___
Jellyfish and flatworms have body walls that are only ___ cells thick