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Flashcards in Chapter 42 Deck (61):
1

Hemolymph goes directly into the organs. This system does not reuse the hemolymph used to transfer O2 to organs

Open circulatory system

2

Hemoglobin/Blood is confined to vessels and is distinct from interstitial fluid. This system reuses blood and continues to recirculate it. Vessels go back to heart before to body

Closed circulatory system

3

Do humans have an open or closed circulatory system?

Closed

4

What types of animals have double circulation?

Amphibians, reptiles, and mammals

5

What does the SA node do?

Sets rate and time at which cardiac muscle cells contract

6

Fluid lost by capillaries

Lymph

7

What cellular element is found most in blood and transports O2 and CO2?

Erythrocytes (red blood cells)

8

Collects excess cholesterol so that it can be returned to the liver. Good for you.

HDL

9

Delivers cholesterol to cells for membrane production. Increases risks of heart attacks and stroke. Bad for you.

LDL

10

Takes place at alveoli (tips of bronchioles)

Gas exchange

11

What is one similarity between platelets and erythrocytes?

Both do not contain a nucleus, so they will not survive for a long time

12

What causes sickle cell disease?

Erythrocytes in body do not form complete round cell, but are hook shaped and can get stuck in blood vessels-causes build up and can rupture. Abnormal hemoglobin proteins build up and can deform. Sickle cells can rupture or block blood vessels.

13

Plays big role in coagulation

Vitamin k

14

Gas exchange supplies ____ for cellular respiration and disposes of ___

O2; CO2

15

How fish gills work for respiration. Water passing over gills is going in the opposite direction as the fish's blood. The blood has less oxygen than the water.

Countercurrent exchange system

16

What kind of circulatory system does a a grasshopper have?

Open

17

Frogs, fish, and pandas have ___

Hemoglobin

18

A grasshopper has ___

Hemolymph

19

The vessel that supplies the heart muscle with oxygenated blood is the ___

Coronary artery

20

Which chamber of the heart pumps oxygenated blood to the different parts of the body?

Ventricle

21

What is the main function of the circulatory system in the human body?

Transporting nutrients

22

What are the 3 main types of blood vessels?

Arteries, veins, capillaries

23

What animals have a single circulatory system with a two-chambered heart?

Bony fishes, rays, sharks

24

When oxygen poor and oxygen rich blood are pumped separately from the right and left sides of the heart, that means ___

Double circulation

25

Blood is oxygenated as it is being moved to the organs

Single pump system

26

Separate sets of arteries and veins are used to first oxygenate the blood and then send it to the organs

Double pump system

27

What animals usually have a single pump circulatory system?

Fish and marine animals

28

List the leukocytes, greatest to least in amount present

Neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, basophils

29

Why is it important to expel CO2 from the body?

CO2 in water forms an acidic substance which lowers blood pH. This can denature enzymes and cause harm to body.

30

Example of endotherm

Mammals; birds. Require more O2 than ectotherms

31

Contraction/pumping of heart

Systole

32

Relaxation/filling phase

Diastole

33

What do animals that lack circulatory systems have? Functions both as a digestive system and a circulatory system

Gastrovascular cavity

34

Why are the endothelial walls of the capillaries so thin?

So that gas exchange can happen easily and more efficiently

35

Help body fight off infections

Lymph nodes

36

True/false: in single circulation, blood leaving the heart passes through two capillary beds before returning

True

37

True/false: oxygenated blood goes through the left atrium and left ventricle, towards the aorta

True

38

Order of blood flow for a 4 chambered heart starting with right atrium?

Right atrium, right ventricle, lung capillaries, left atrium, left ventricle, systematic capillaries

39

Separate each atrium and ventricle

Atrioventricular valves

40

The epithelial tissue that lines blood vessels

Endothelium

41

Which have thicker walls, veins or arteries?

Arteries

42

Why is diffusion only efficient over small distances?

The time it takes to diffuse is proportional to the square of the distance

43

What percentage of blood does plasma make up?

55%

44

What percentage of blood do elements make up?

45%

45

Positive pressure which forces air down the trachea

How amphibians breathe

46

Have 8/9 sacs which keep air flowing through lungs in one direction

How birds breathe

47

Negative pressure, which pulls air into the lungs

How mammals breathe

48

Frogs and amphibians have a ___ chamber heart

3

49

What do mammals have that allows them to be able to dive?

Myoglobin

50

A blood clot within a vessel

Thrombus

51

Animal with a closed system with blood and positive pressure

Panda

52

Fish have a ___ chamber heart

2

53

Protein responsible for the transport of O2 in the body

Hemoglobin

54

A mixture that contains phospholipids and proteins used to clot the alveoli and reduce surface tension

Surfactant

55

Part of brain that directly controls breathing

Medulla oblongata

56

What two factors are important for coagulation in the blood?

Calcium and vitamin k

57

Amphibians have a ___ chambered heart

3

58

Returns fluid that leaks out of the capillaries

Lymphatic system

59

Platelets and erythrocytes do not have a ___

Nucleus

60

Jellyfish and flatworms have body walls that are only ___ cells thick

2

61

What animal does not have a circulatory system?

Jellyfish