Flashcards in Chapter 40 Deck (54):
In vertebrates, what is the fluid that allows for the movement of material into and out of cells and fills the space between cells?
What are the four main tissue types?
What is the purpose of epithelial tissue?
It covers the areas outside the body and lines organs
List 6 types of connective tissue
Ligaments, tendons, bones, adipose, blood, cartilage
What is muscle tissue comprised of?
Actin and myosin
What is the function of nervous tissue?
Receives, processes, and transmits info quickly through body
What is the difference between nerves and hormones?
Hormones act slower than nerves and affect a region in the body. Nerves are quick and target specific areas.
The body maintaining natural equilibrium with its external environment; maintaining body temperature, pH, and glucose concentration
What is the difference between an endotherm and an ectotherm?
Endotherms produce their own body heat. The body heat of ectotherms is based on their environment.
What is torpor?
The state in which physical activity is low and metabolic rate decreases. Hibernation is an example of a long term state or torpor.
Cells in the connective tissue that secrete the protein of extracellular fibers
Skeletal muscle is responsible for what type of movement?
What are the 3 types of muscle tissue found in the body?
Give an example of negative feedback
When you are thirsty, your control center is stimulated, tells you to drink water, and it's negative because once you drink water you are not thirsty anymore so it stops.
Give an example of positive feedback
Childbirth. Changes in body that cause more change, like childbirth-contractions increase. Keeps going.
What part of the brain controls thermoregulation?
What is the function of nervous tissue and what is it made up of?
Transmits info to a specific area of the body. Contains neurons and glial cells.
Is rate of exchange proportional to a cell's surface area?
Dendrites, cell body, and axon are components of?
Neurons and glia are components of?
How is metabolic rate determined?
An animal's heat loss
Amount of O2 consumed or CO2 produced
Measuring energy content of food consumed or energy lost in waste
Use light energy to build energy rich molecules
Obtain energy from food
When the body adjusts metabolic heat production to maintain body temp. Can be increased by muscle activity.
The flow and transformation of energy in an animal
What are 5 adaptations that help animals thermoregulate
Cooling by evaporative heat loss
Adjusting metabolic heat production
What are the 4 processes of heat exchange?
Name 3 parts of the integumentary system
Skin, hair, and nails
The rate of exchange is proportional to what?
A cell's surface area
Binds and supports tissues; contains fibroblast and macrophage cells
Lines organs and cavities; cells are joined tightly together
Controls body movement, types are smooth, muscular, and cardiac
Receives, processes, and transfers information. Information moves from dendrites to axons.
Uses internal mechanisms to control internal change in the face of external fluctuation
Allows internal condition to vary with certain external changes
What are 3 things animals exchange with the environment?
How many organ systems are in mammals?
What is the hierarchy like organization of the makeup of the body?
The process in which an animal adjusts to its external environment
The smaller the animal...
The higher the metabolic rate
What is the main source of energy in animals?
What irfan system are the kidneys part of?
Do tendons attach muscles to bones?
Governs physiological changes that occur roughly every 24 hours
What type of animals generate heat by metabolism?
Give examples of organisms that have direct exchange with the environment
Hydra, amoeba, algae
What is the type of connective tissue that is found in tendons, connecting muscles to bones and ligaments, and connecting bones to joints?
Fibrous connective tissue
What are the 3 elements that are suspended in plasma in blood and what are their functions?
1) erythrocytes-carry O2 through body
2) leukocytes- help to prevent or fight disease
3) platelets- help with coagulation of blood
Name some factors that affect metabolic rate of a human
Age, size, temperature, sex, nutrition, activity
When there is a break or cut on human skin, the area repairs itself by regeneration of cells. Which type of epithelial tissue is responsible?
Stratified squamous epithelium
Attached to bones by tendons
Skeletal muscle tissue
Found in walls of heart
Cardiac muscle tissue
Found in walls of internal organs, arteries
Smooth muscle tissue