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Flashcards in Chapter 40 Deck (54):
1

In vertebrates, what is the fluid that allows for the movement of material into and out of cells and fills the space between cells?

Interstitial fluid

2

What are the four main tissue types?

Epithelial
Connective
Muscle
Nervous

3

What is the purpose of epithelial tissue?

It covers the areas outside the body and lines organs

4

List 6 types of connective tissue

Ligaments, tendons, bones, adipose, blood, cartilage

5

What is muscle tissue comprised of?

Actin and myosin

6

What is the function of nervous tissue?

Receives, processes, and transmits info quickly through body

7

What is the difference between nerves and hormones?

Hormones act slower than nerves and affect a region in the body. Nerves are quick and target specific areas.

8

Define homeostasis

The body maintaining natural equilibrium with its external environment; maintaining body temperature, pH, and glucose concentration

9

What is the difference between an endotherm and an ectotherm?

Endotherms produce their own body heat. The body heat of ectotherms is based on their environment.

10

What is torpor?

The state in which physical activity is low and metabolic rate decreases. Hibernation is an example of a long term state or torpor.

11

Cells in the connective tissue that secrete the protein of extracellular fibers

Fibroblast cells

12

Skeletal muscle is responsible for what type of movement?

Voluntary

13

What are the 3 types of muscle tissue found in the body?

Skeletal
Smooth
Cardiac

14

Give an example of negative feedback

When you are thirsty, your control center is stimulated, tells you to drink water, and it's negative because once you drink water you are not thirsty anymore so it stops.

15

Give an example of positive feedback

Childbirth. Changes in body that cause more change, like childbirth-contractions increase. Keeps going.

16

What part of the brain controls thermoregulation?

Hypothalamus

17

What is the function of nervous tissue and what is it made up of?

Transmits info to a specific area of the body. Contains neurons and glial cells.

18

Is rate of exchange proportional to a cell's surface area?

Yes

19

Dendrites, cell body, and axon are components of?

A neuron

20

Neurons and glia are components of?

Nervous tissue

21

How is metabolic rate determined?

An animal's heat loss
Amount of O2 consumed or CO2 produced
Measuring energy content of food consumed or energy lost in waste

22

Use light energy to build energy rich molecules

Autotrophs

23

Obtain energy from food

Heterotrophs

24

When the body adjusts metabolic heat production to maintain body temp. Can be increased by muscle activity.

Thermogenesis

25

The flow and transformation of energy in an animal

Biogenetics

26

What are 5 adaptations that help animals thermoregulate

Insulation
Circulatory adaptations
Cooling by evaporative heat loss
Behavioral responses
Adjusting metabolic heat production

27

What are the 4 processes of heat exchange?

Radiation
Evaporation
Convection
Conduction

28

Name 3 parts of the integumentary system

Skin, hair, and nails

29

The rate of exchange is proportional to what?

A cell's surface area

30

Binds and supports tissues; contains fibroblast and macrophage cells

Connective tissue

31

Lines organs and cavities; cells are joined tightly together

Epithelial tissue

32

Controls body movement, types are smooth, muscular, and cardiac

Muscle tissue

33

Receives, processes, and transfers information. Information moves from dendrites to axons.

Nervous tissue

34

Uses internal mechanisms to control internal change in the face of external fluctuation

Regulator

35

Allows internal condition to vary with certain external changes

Conformer

36

What are 3 things animals exchange with the environment?

Nutrients
Waste products
Gases

37

How many organ systems are in mammals?

11

38

What is the hierarchy like organization of the makeup of the body?

Cell-tissue-organ-organ system

39

The process in which an animal adjusts to its external environment

Acclimatization

40

The smaller the animal...

The higher the metabolic rate

41

What is the main source of energy in animals?

ATP

42

What irfan system are the kidneys part of?

Excretory

43

Do tendons attach muscles to bones?

Yes

44

Governs physiological changes that occur roughly every 24 hours

Circadian rhythm

45

What type of animals generate heat by metabolism?

Endothermic

46

Give examples of organisms that have direct exchange with the environment

Hydra, amoeba, algae

47

What is the type of connective tissue that is found in tendons, connecting muscles to bones and ligaments, and connecting bones to joints?

Fibrous connective tissue

48

What are the 3 elements that are suspended in plasma in blood and what are their functions?

1) erythrocytes-carry O2 through body
2) leukocytes- help to prevent or fight disease
3) platelets- help with coagulation of blood

49

Name some factors that affect metabolic rate of a human

Age, size, temperature, sex, nutrition, activity

50

When there is a break or cut on human skin, the area repairs itself by regeneration of cells. Which type of epithelial tissue is responsible?

Stratified squamous epithelium

51

Attached to bones by tendons

Skeletal muscle tissue

52

Found in walls of heart

Cardiac muscle tissue

53

Found in walls of internal organs, arteries

Smooth muscle tissue

54

Epithelial tissue is considered polar, meaning there are 2 different surfaces. What are the 2 sides of the epithelium?

Apical and basal surface