Flashcards in Chapter 43 Deck (56):
What are the 4 types of phagocytic cells?
Engulf and destroy pathogens
Found throughout the body
Stimulate development of adaptive immunity
Discharge destructive enzymes
What are the two main phagocytic cells?
Neutrophils and macrophages
Agents that cause bacteria/disease
Where are white blood cells formed?
Where do white blood cells differentiate?
What are the different types of antibodies?
What type of defense do interferon proteins provide?
Where do antigens get responses from?
B and T cells
Defense active immediately upon infection
Recognizes foreign bodies and responds by producing immune cells and proteins
The immune system
Type of immunity in all animals. Recognition of traits shared by broad ranges of pathogens, using a small set of receptors
Type of immunity only in vertebrates. Recognition of traits specific to particular pathogens, using a vast array of receptors
What protects the digestive system?
A chitin-based barrier and lysozyme
An enzyme that breaks down bacterial cell walls
How can the immune system recognize bacteria and fungi?
By structures on their cell walls
Recognize fragments of molecules characteristic of a set of pathogens
Toll-like receptors (TLRs)
Made up of about 30 proteins which causes lysis of invading cells and helps trigger inflammation
A type of connective tissue. Release histamine which triggers blood vessels to dilate and become more permeable
Molecule released from mast cells to signal inflammation and pain. Triggers blood vessels to dilate and become more permeable.
What does enhanced blood flow to a site help with?
Helps deliver antimicrobial peptides that result in accumulation of pus
Fluid rich in white blood cells, dead pathogens, and cell debris from damaged tissue
Life-threatening condition caused by an overwhelming inflammatory response
Which responds faster-innate immunity or adaptive immunity?
The internal immune defense insects use to destroy bacteria or foreign substances in hemolymph
Signals the production of antibodies; work in humoral and cell-mediated immune responses
Helper T cells
Name procedures that can cause immune rejection
Organ, skin, and tissue transplantation; blood transfusion
When a virus or disease does not trigger an immune response and becomes inactive in the body
Where are lymphocytes created?
Stem cells in bone marrow
In insects, what is the first barrier to pathogens?
An exoskeleton made of chitin
What are some barriers/defenses of innate immunity?
Skin & mucous membranes of the respiratory, urinary, and reproductive tracts
Provide innate defense, interfering with viruses and helping activate macrophages
What are the four major characteristics of the adaptive immune system?
1) diversity of lymphocytes and receptors
3) B and T cells proliferate after activation
4) Immunological memory
Responsible for long-term protections against diseases
What two types of defenses are provided by B and T lymphocytes?
Humoral immune response and cell-mediated immune response
Antibodies help neutralize or eliminate toxins and pathogens in the blood and lymph.
Humoral immune response
Specialized T cells destroy affected host cells
Cell-mediated immune response
Develops naturally as pathogen invades body and elicits primary or secondary immune response
Provides immediate, short-term protection
Adaptive responses rely on what two types of lymphocytes?
T and B cells
How do phagocytic cells recognize groups of pathogens?
Toll-like receptors (TLRs)
How do killer cells kill cells?
Release chemicals that kill and inhibit the spread of disease
How do muscles swell?
Mast cells release histamine which makes blood vessels dilate
What is one way pathogens avoid being detected?
Changing their surface
What is one way to elicit a response from a B or T cell?
Have an antigen come
Process when major histocompatibility complex molecules bind and transport antigen fragments to the cell surface
How are antigen receptors generated?
Random rearrangement of DNA
When a doctor puts antigens into your body to make you resistant to a disease
Diseases when the immune system attacks the body. Give examples
Autoimmune diseases; diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis
Have Y-shaped antigen receptors
Have straight antigen receptors
The small accessible part of an antigen that binds to an antigen receptor