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Flashcards in Chapter 43 Deck (56):
1

What are the 4 types of phagocytic cells?

Neutrophils
Macrophages
Dendritic cells
Eosinophils

2

Engulf and destroy pathogens

Neutrophils

3

Found throughout the body

Macrophages

4

Stimulate development of adaptive immunity

Dendritic cells

5

Discharge destructive enzymes

Eosinophils

6

What are the two main phagocytic cells?

Neutrophils and macrophages

7

Agents that cause bacteria/disease

Pathogens

8

Where are white blood cells formed?

Bone marrow

9

Where do white blood cells differentiate?

Thymus

10

What are the different types of antibodies?

IgA
IgE
IgG
IgM
IgD

11

What type of defense do interferon proteins provide?

Innate defense

12

Where do antigens get responses from?

B and T cells

13

Defense active immediately upon infection

Innate immunity

14

Recognizes foreign bodies and responds by producing immune cells and proteins

The immune system

15

Type of immunity in all animals. Recognition of traits shared by broad ranges of pathogens, using a small set of receptors

Innate immunity

16

Type of immunity only in vertebrates. Recognition of traits specific to particular pathogens, using a vast array of receptors

Adaptive immunity

17

What protects the digestive system?

A chitin-based barrier and lysozyme

18

An enzyme that breaks down bacterial cell walls

Lysozyme

19

How can the immune system recognize bacteria and fungi?

By structures on their cell walls

20

Recognize fragments of molecules characteristic of a set of pathogens

Toll-like receptors (TLRs)

21

Made up of about 30 proteins which causes lysis of invading cells and helps trigger inflammation

Complement system

22

A type of connective tissue. Release histamine which triggers blood vessels to dilate and become more permeable

Mast cells

23

Molecule released from mast cells to signal inflammation and pain. Triggers blood vessels to dilate and become more permeable.

Histamine

24

What does enhanced blood flow to a site help with?

Helps deliver antimicrobial peptides that result in accumulation of pus

25

Fluid rich in white blood cells, dead pathogens, and cell debris from damaged tissue

Pus

26

Life-threatening condition caused by an overwhelming inflammatory response

Septic shock

27

Which responds faster-innate immunity or adaptive immunity?

Innate immunity

28

The internal immune defense insects use to destroy bacteria or foreign substances in hemolymph

Phagocytosis

29

Signals the production of antibodies; work in humoral and cell-mediated immune responses

Helper T cells

30

Name procedures that can cause immune rejection

Organ, skin, and tissue transplantation; blood transfusion

31

When a virus or disease does not trigger an immune response and becomes inactive in the body

Latent

32

Where are lymphocytes created?

Stem cells in bone marrow

33

In insects, what is the first barrier to pathogens?

An exoskeleton made of chitin

34

What are some barriers/defenses of innate immunity?

Skin & mucous membranes of the respiratory, urinary, and reproductive tracts

35

Provide innate defense, interfering with viruses and helping activate macrophages

Interferon proteins

36

What are the four major characteristics of the adaptive immune system?

1) diversity of lymphocytes and receptors
2) self-tolerance
3) B and T cells proliferate after activation
4) Immunological memory

37

Responsible for long-term protections against diseases

Immunological memory

38

What two types of defenses are provided by B and T lymphocytes?

Humoral immune response and cell-mediated immune response

39

Antibodies help neutralize or eliminate toxins and pathogens in the blood and lymph.

Humoral immune response

40

Specialized T cells destroy affected host cells

Cell-mediated immune response

41

Develops naturally as pathogen invades body and elicits primary or secondary immune response

Active immunity

42

Provides immediate, short-term protection

Passive immunity

43

Adaptive responses rely on what two types of lymphocytes?

T and B cells

44

How do phagocytic cells recognize groups of pathogens?

Toll-like receptors (TLRs)

45

How do killer cells kill cells?

Release chemicals that kill and inhibit the spread of disease

46

How do muscles swell?

Mast cells release histamine which makes blood vessels dilate

47

What is one way pathogens avoid being detected?

Changing their surface

48

What is one way to elicit a response from a B or T cell?

Have an antigen come

49

Process when major histocompatibility complex molecules bind and transport antigen fragments to the cell surface

Antigen presentation

50

How are antigen receptors generated?

Random rearrangement of DNA

51

When a doctor puts antigens into your body to make you resistant to a disease

Immunization

52

Diseases when the immune system attacks the body. Give examples

Autoimmune diseases; diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis

53

Have Y-shaped antigen receptors

B cells

54

Have straight antigen receptors

T cells

55

The small accessible part of an antigen that binds to an antigen receptor

Epitope

56

All organisms have ___ cells and ___ ___ cells

Phagocytic cells; natural killer cells