Flashcards in Final Exam Studying Deck (241):
Chitons are ___
What is the difference between ectoderm and endoderm?
Ectoderm has germ layer covering embryo's surface; maintains body temperature based on outside temperatures, like snakes. Endoderm has a germ layer inside that lines the digestive tube; maintains body temperatures internally, like mammals
Is a centipede a herbivore or a carnivor?
A centipede is a carnivor
What is the basic body plan of a cnidarian?
A sac with a central digestive compartment (the gastrovascular cavity)
What is the difference between diploblastic and triplaoblastic?
Diploblastic are made of endoderm and ectoderm. Triplaoblastic are made of endoderm, ectoderm, and also have mesoderm
What is the lancelet?
What are the two types of symmetry?
Radial and bilateral
Name an animal that breathes through positive pressure
What is special about Ecdysozoan?
What animal does not undergo complete metamorphosis?
What kind of vascular system do echinoderms have?
Water Vascular system
List two differences between protostomes and deuterostomes
In protostome development, cleavage is spiral and determinate. In deuterostome development, cleavage is radial and indeterminate.
What are three adaptations of birds to fly?
They have very light bones, feathers, and wings
Why are amphibians called amphibians?
They live part of their life in water and part on land
What are the factors that play a critical role in generating multicellular organisms?
Capacity of the cell to adhere and signal to other cells
Apoda are ___
Name one of the three big eras that had animals
What are two traits that all mammals share?
2) produce milk
In what era did dinosaurs go extinct?
How do sponges feed?
They are filter feeders
Producing eggs that hatch inside the body: young are born alive without placenta
Young develop in the mother, are fed through placenta, and are born alive
Producing eggs that hatch outside the body
List at least one type of flatworm that is a parasite of humans
True or false: larva is a sexually immature and morphologically distinct organism from the adult
What mammals lay eggs?
What is the basal taxon of Metazoa?
What are the Hox genes?
Genes that play a critical role in evolution
What happens after a sperm fertilizes an egg?
The zygote undergoes rapid cell division called cleavage
In what type of symmetry is it possible to distinguish the following: dorsal and ventral, left and right
What animals have an osculum?
What are the three main parts of molluscs?
Muscular foot, visceral mass, mantle
What are gnathosomes named for?
Presence of their jaw
List two key characteristics of chordates
1. dorsal nerve cord
What are examples of jawless vertebrates still existent today?
Where does gas exchange occur in spiders?
True or false: in incomplete metamorphosis, the young, called nymphs, resemble adults but are smaller and go through a series of molts until they reach full size
Name an animal that is not an amniote
What are invertebrates?
Animals that lack a backbone
List two things that all living animals share
1.) A common ancestor
True or false: sharks only have one line of teeth
Chondrichthyans have a skeleton composed primarily of ___?
List three traits of a tetrapod
1.) four limbs
2.) can be aquatic
Why are some animals classified as Medusozoans?
In one of their steps of life they are in the form of medusa
What is the function of the immune system?
Body's defense against pathogens (agents that cause disease)
What is the difference between innate and adaptive immunity?
Innate immunity is an immediate response to a pathogen. Only certain animals have adaptive immunity, and it is a slower response
List three aspects that are common in the inner defense
Self-tolerance, immunological memory, diversity of lymphocytes and receptors
What is an epitope?
The small accessible part of an antigen that binds to an antigen receptor
What are the four types of phagocytic cells and their functions?
Macrophages (present all over body), neutrophils (engulf antigens), dendritic cells (signal), eosinophils (fight infections)
What is the process called when major histocompatibility complex molecules bind and transport antigen fragments to the cell surface?
Adaptive responses rely on what two types of cells?
T and B cells
What must happen at the level of the DNA to guarantee the generation of different antigen receptors?
The DNA must be randomly arranged
What is the function of memory cells?
They help immunological memory so that if an antigen or pathogen comes back, the body recognizes it and attacks it immediately
How do phagocytic cells recognize groups of pathogens?
They use toll-like receptors to recognize pathogens on the cell wall
Name three different types of antibodies
IgA, IgG, IgE, IgM, IgD
What are autoimmune diseases? Name a couple.
Diseases where the body attacks itself. Diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis
What happens in septic shock?
The whole body gets infected and organs begin to shut down over reaction; happens because of an extreme inflammatory response
Which organ system is producing chemical signaling called hormones?
What is the difference between hormones and pheromones?
Pheromones are in the environment and hormones are secreted in the body
Hormones can belong to three types of macromolecules, which ones?
True or false: hormones reach all parts of the body, but inky target cells have receptors for that hormone and can respond
What is the difference between paracrine signaling and autocrine signaling?
Paracrine: Target cells lie near secreting cells
Autocrine: Target cell is also the secreting cell
Which type of feedback results in reinforcing a stimulus to produce an even greater response?
What is the function of melatonin?
Helps with sleep. Is secreted by the pineal gland
True or false: If a hormone is lipophylic it does not need a carrier to be transported through blood circulation
False: if it is hydrophilic it does not need a carrier
True or false: binding of a hormone to its receptor initiate a signal transduction pathway leading to responses in the cytoskeleton, enzyme activation, or a change in gene expression
Both pituitary gland and adrenal gland are separated into two parts. What are they?
Pituitary: anterior and posterior
Adrenal: medulla and cortex
T3 and T4
What kind of symptoms can hypothyroidism cause?
Weight gain, being cold
Name the 5 sensory receptors
3. electromagnetic receptors
5. pain receptors
True or false: all animals see color
Name two organisms that use electromagnetic receptors to detect stimuli
True or false: nociceptors respond to light
False. They are pain receptors so they respond to pain
What are the two types of proteins responsible for muscle contractions?
Actin (thin filaments) and myosin (thick filaments)
Name 5 types of taste perceptions
Umani, bitter, sweet, salty, sour
Where is the sense of olfaction located?
The nose: smell; olfactory bulb in the brain
What is the difference between rods and cones?
Cones detect color; rods detect black and white
Insects have excellent color vision and can see UV light. What allows this to happen?
They have compound lenses and ommatidia that detect many colors
Ciliary muscles contract; suspensory ligaments relax
Ciliary muscles relax; border of choroid moves away from lens; suspensory ligaments pull against lens
How many bones are there in the human ear?
3: malleus, incus, stipes
True or false: chemoreceptors sense physical deformation caused by stimuli such as pressure, stretch, motion, and sound
What is tetanus?
A state of smooth and sustained contraction produced when motor neurons deliver a volley of action potentials
Describe the three main types of skeletons and give one example for each type
Endoskeleton: human skeleton-hard interior
Exoskeleton: hard exterior; turtles, molluscs-soft tissue outside
Hydrostatic skeleton: traps fluid-worms/annelids
True or false: locomotion is active movement from place to place
Malthus publishes "Essay on the Principle of Population"
Lamarck publishes his hypothesis of evolution
Hutton proposes his principle of gradualism
Lyell publishes "Principle of Geology"
Wallace sends to Darwin his hypothesis of natural selection
Cuvier publishes his study on fossils
Darwin travels around the world
Who is the founder of taxonomy?
What are fossils?
Remains from organisms often found in layers of sedentary rock called strata
What does homology mean?
Organisms that share similar structures due to sharing a common ancestor
In what type of rocks are fossils usually found?
What is the study of fossils called?
What are the four types of data for pattern of evolution?
The increase in the evolution of drug-resistant pathogens is due to ___
Define convergent evolution
Evolution where species from different places are similar-for example, sugar gliders and flying squirrels are similar but from different places
True or false: individuals evolve.
False. Only populations evolve and that takes time
What was Pangaea?
The first continent
Evolution can be described with Darwin's phrase: ___
Descent with modification
What is the difference between microevolution and macroevolution?
Microevolution consists of changes in allele frequency in a population over time. Macroevolution refers to broad patterns of evolutionary change above the species level
What are three mechanisms that cause allele frequency change?
1) natural selection
2) gene flow
3) genetic drift
What is the bottleneck effect?
Decrease in population number due to environmental factors
True or false: the Hardy Weinberg Principle says that frequencies of alleles and genotypes in a population remain constant from generation to generation.
What is the equation for Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium?
p2 + 2pq + q2 = 1
When does the founder effect occur
When a species becomes isolated from other populations
Define genetic drift
It reduces variation in alleles, it gets rid of harmful alleles, and it causes there to be overall less variation. It occurs in small populations.
True or false: a neutral mutation causes no advantage or disadvantage
What is the difference between intrasexual and intersexual selection?
Intrasexual: organisms from the same species/gender directly compete for mates of opposite gender. Intersexual: when opposite sex organisms are choosy about their mates and look for distinct characteristics that make them attractive like bright feathers.
What are the 5 conditions for non-evolving populations?
1) no mutations
2) random mating
3) no natural selection
4) very large population
5) no gene flow
What are some reasons why natural selection cannot fashion perfect organisms?
It can only work with already existing traits so it can't create its own perfect traits. It relies on past organisms and how they have developed overtime. Environmental factors have a huge influence and cannot really be controlled.
True or false: a mutation is always harmful
Two species interact rarely due to different environments
Species which breed at different times in a day, different seasons, different years
Barriers to mating due to unique species and courtship rituals
Unsuccessful mating due to morphological differences
Sperm of one species may not fertilize an egg of another
Name a post-zygotic barrier that could prevent the offspring of sexual reproduction
Hybrid breakdown, reduced hybrid fertility, hybrid viability
What are hybrids?
Organisms that develop from two organisms from different species and are infertile-like a mule or donkey
The formation of a new species
Indicate the difference between sympatric and allopatric speciation and give an example for each
Allopatric: mating despite geographic isolation; grolar bear.
Sympatric: mating of species from same place/environment
What is polyploidy? Is it more common in animals or plants?
Polyploidy is when excess chromosomes are in an organism. It is more common in plants than in animals.
What islands did Charles Darwin travel to that made his work famous?
Reproductive barriers increase
Continued formation of hybrid species
Reproductive barriers continue to weaken
What is a hybrid zone?
A zone where hybrids mate and produce offspring
What are the oldest known fossils?
What is the correct order in hierarchical classification of an organism from specific to broad?
Species, genus, family, order, class, phylum, kingdom, domain
What is the most common technique to determine the age of a fossil?
How long ago wS the earth created?
4.6 billion years ago
What was the first genetic material?
Fossil records favor species that were ___
Around for a long time, had hard parts, were widespread
What is phylogeny?
The ancestors/descendants of a species
A ___ is a unit of hierarchy at any level
Includes distantly related species but does not include their most recent common ancestor
An ancestral species and some but not all of the descendants
Includes the ancestor and all its descendants
Describe each of the five parts of a phylogenetic tree
Branch point-ancestors separate & are from different origins
Sister taxa-directly related ancestors
Rooted tree- organisms share common ancestor at base of tree
Basal taxon- unit hierarchy
Polytomy- more than two sister taxa
What is a clade? Give an example.
A group of descendants and their ancestors from their species. Whales.
What is the molecular clock?
Calculates evolutionary change
Two differences between gram positive and gram negative
Gram positive: lots of peptidoglycan in cell wall
Gram negative: less peptidoglycan in cell wall
True or false: thermophiles live in highly saline environments. Extreme halophiles thrive in very hot environments
False; other way
What are the three most common shapes of prokaryotes?
Rod, coccli, spiral
What are the three parts that composed the bacterial flagella?
Motor unit, rod, sporocytes
True or false: prokaryotes reproduce through mitosis
False; binary fusion
What is the name of the process where genetic material is transferred between prokaryotic cells?
True or false: prokaryotic cells have organelles and are more complex than eukaryotic cells.
Give an example of Excavata
Give an example of SAR clade
Give an example of archaeaplastidia
Give an example of unikonta
True or false: endosymbiosis is a relationship between two species in which one organism lives inside the cell or cells of the other organism
Protists that combine photosynthesis and heterotrophic nutrition
What is alternation of generations?
Fluctuation between diploid and haploid stages in plants
How do fungi break down complex molecules into smaller organic compounds?
They use enzymes
What is the specialized hyphae that some unique fungi have that allows them to penetrate the tissues of their host?
Fungi reproduction is special because two cells cytoplasms and nuclei can fuse independently. What are these two processes called?
A lichen us a symbiotic association between a photosynthetic microorganism and a fungus. Give three characteristics of a lichen
What type of fungus is the yeast?
Name a disease in humans due to bacteria
Name a disease in humans due to protist
Name a disease in humans due to fungus
What are the traits that land plants share only with charophytes?
Multicellular, algae-brown, golden
List the five key traits that appear in nearly all land plants but are not present in charophytes
Alteration of generations
What is sporopollenin? What organisms have it?
It prevents zygotes from dying out
Give ex of non-vascular plant
Give ex of vascular plant w/o seed
Give ex of vascular plant with seeds
What parts does a flower have to be a complete flower?
Carpel, stamen, petal, sepal
Name two advantages to pollen vs sperm
Easier to spread around-wind, animals
Reproduction is more efficient
What does a seed consist of?
Embryo and protective coat
What is a cuticle?
Protective film covering leaves
What is pollination?
Transferring sperm to ovule, allows flower/plant to grow. Spermatogenesis goes to female tube and fertilizes
True or false: phloem conducts most of the water and minerals and includes tube-shaped cells called tracheas
False; xylem carry water, phloem carry glucose
True or false: a club moss is a bryophyte
Why in angiosperms do we talk about double fertilization?
There are two sperms. One fertilizes the egg forming a diploid zygote; other fuses with two polar nuclei
What is one similarity between platelets and erythrocytes?
Both do not contain a nucleus so they will not survive for a long time
What causes sickle-cell disease?
Abnormal hemoglobin proteins that form aggregates which can deform. Sickled cells can rupture or block blood vessels
What plays a big role in coagulation?
Calcium and vitamin k
What is a cardiovascular disease that is caused by the buildup of fatty acids, or plaque, within arteries?
What is the difference between LDL (low density lipoprotein) and HDL (high-density lipoprotein)?
LDL delivers cholesterol to cells for membrane production and HDL collects excess cholesterol so that it can be returned to the liver
Gas exchange supplies ___ for cellular respiration and disposes of ___
Surfaces used by animals for respiration include:
Skin, lungs, gills, tracheae
How do fish gills work for respiration?
Fish gills use a countercurrent exchange system where the water passing over the gills is going in the opposite direction as the fish's blood. The blood has less oxygen than the water
Give an example of an animal that has an open circulatory system
What are the types of circulatory fluid? Give examples of animals that have each.
Hemolymph and hemoglobin. A grasshopper has hemolymph. Frogs, fish, and pandas have hemoglobin
The solute concentration of a solution is ___
What is the main organ of excretion for marine fish?
Gills because their kidneys do not work as well
How do birds conserve water?
Birds excrete uric acid instead of urea
What kind of excretory organ does a flatworm have? What type of waste is produced?
True or false: water enters and leaves cells by osmosis
What kind of excretory organ does a freshwater fish have? What type of waste is produced?
What kind of excretory organ does a panda have? What type of waste is produced?
What type of excretory organ does a grasshopper have? What type of waste is produced?
Malphigians tubules; uric acid
What is the difference between osmoconformers and osmoregulators?
Osmoconformers: isoosmotic w/ surroundings. Do not regulate their osmolarity.
Osmoregulators: expend their energy to control water uptake and loss in a hyperosmotic or hypoosmotic environment
What is the difference between stenohaline and euryhaline animals?
Most animals are stenohaline and cannot tolerate big changes in external osmolarity. Euryhaline animals can survive large fluctuations in external osmolarity.
What is the axon hillock?
Cone shaped structure where an action potential is established
Supporting cells that help with transmitting information and are intermingled with neurons
What makes up the CNS (central nervous system)?
Brain and spinal cord
What does the PNS (peripheral nervous system) do?
Carries information in and out of the CNS
What is the difference between intracellular concentration and extracellular concentration?
Intracellular concentration is how many ions are inside of the cell. Extracellular is how many ions are outside of cell
When a membrane potential becomes even more negative, potassium gets out, and the inside of the cell becomes negative it is called ___
When a membrane potential becomes positive, there is a reduction in magnitude of the membrane potential, and sodium goes inside of the cell it is called ___.
When sodium channels close and potassium channels open, and potassium comes into the cell to recreate the membrane potential, it is called ___
Which neurotransmitter has to do with anxiety disorders and hallucinations?
Which neurotransmitter has to do with Parkinson's disease and drug addiction?
Which neurotransmitter has to do with ADHD and amphetamines?
What is a set of interconnected nerve cells called?
A nerve net
What animal has a brain, 2 nerve cords, and transverse nerves?
What animal has a brain, a ventral nerve cord, and segmental ganglia?
What has no brain, an anterior nerve ring, and longitudinal nerve cords?
In vertebrates, what is a difference between the CNS and the PNS? What is a similarity?
The CNS is composed of the brain and spinal cord. The PNS is composed of nerves and ganglia. A similarity is that both are known for region specialization.
What are segmentally arranged clusters of neurons called?
What do radial glial cells and astrocytes both act as?
What is the difference between gray matter and white matter?
Gray matter consists of neuron cell bodies, dendrites, and unmyelinated axons. White matter consists of bundles of myelinated axons
What regulates arousal and the "fight-or-flight" response? What promotes calming?
Sympathetic division; parasympathetic division