Final Exam Studying Flashcards Preview

Bio152 > Final Exam Studying > Flashcards

Flashcards in Final Exam Studying Deck (241):
1

Chitons are ___

Molluscs

2

What is the difference between ectoderm and endoderm?

Ectoderm has germ layer covering embryo's surface; maintains body temperature based on outside temperatures, like snakes. Endoderm has a germ layer inside that lines the digestive tube; maintains body temperatures internally, like mammals

3

Is a centipede a herbivore or a carnivor?

A centipede is a carnivor

4

What is the basic body plan of a cnidarian?

A sac with a central digestive compartment (the gastrovascular cavity)

5

What is the difference between diploblastic and triplaoblastic?

Diploblastic are made of endoderm and ectoderm. Triplaoblastic are made of endoderm, ectoderm, and also have mesoderm

6

What is the lancelet?

Chordate

7

What are the two types of symmetry?

Radial and bilateral

8

Name an animal that breathes through positive pressure

Frogs

9

What is special about Ecdysozoan?

They molt

10

What animal does not undergo complete metamorphosis?

Grasshopper

11

What kind of vascular system do echinoderms have?

Water Vascular system

12

List two differences between protostomes and deuterostomes

In protostome development, cleavage is spiral and determinate. In deuterostome development, cleavage is radial and indeterminate.

13

What are three adaptations of birds to fly?

They have very light bones, feathers, and wings

14

Why are amphibians called amphibians?

They live part of their life in water and part on land

15

What are the factors that play a critical role in generating multicellular organisms?

Capacity of the cell to adhere and signal to other cells

16

Apoda are ___

Amphibians

17

Name one of the three big eras that had animals

Cretaceous period

18

What are two traits that all mammals share?

1) endotherms
2) produce milk

19

In what era did dinosaurs go extinct?

Cenozoic

20

How do sponges feed?

They are filter feeders

21

Producing eggs that hatch inside the body: young are born alive without placenta

Oviparous

22

Young develop in the mother, are fed through placenta, and are born alive

Ovoviviparous

23

Producing eggs that hatch outside the body

Viviparous

24

List at least one type of flatworm that is a parasite of humans

Tapeworm

25

True or false: larva is a sexually immature and morphologically distinct organism from the adult

True

26

What mammals lay eggs?

Monotremata

27

What is the basal taxon of Metazoa?

Sponges

28

What are the Hox genes?

Genes that play a critical role in evolution

29

What happens after a sperm fertilizes an egg?

The zygote undergoes rapid cell division called cleavage

30

In what type of symmetry is it possible to distinguish the following: dorsal and ventral, left and right

Bilateral

31

What animals have an osculum?

Sponges

32

What are the three main parts of molluscs?

Muscular foot, visceral mass, mantle

33

What are gnathosomes named for?

Presence of their jaw

34

List two key characteristics of chordates

1. dorsal nerve cord
2. notochord

35

What are examples of jawless vertebrates still existent today?

Hagfish

36

Where does gas exchange occur in spiders?

Book lungs

37

True or false: in incomplete metamorphosis, the young, called nymphs, resemble adults but are smaller and go through a series of molts until they reach full size

True

38

Name an animal that is not an amniote

Frog

39

What are invertebrates?

Animals that lack a backbone

40

List two things that all living animals share

1.) A common ancestor
2.) respiration?

41

True or false: sharks only have one line of teeth

False

42

Annelids

Earthworms

43

Nematodes

Elegans

44

Platyhelminthes

Flatworms

45

Chondrichthyans have a skeleton composed primarily of ___?

Cartilage

46

Urodela

Salamander

47

Gastropods

Snail

48

Anellida

Leech

49

Bivalvia

Clam

50

Cephalopoda

Squid

51

Cnidaria

Corals

52

Porifera

Sponges

53

Chelicerate

Spider

54

Arthropod

Lobster

55

Anthozoans

Hydra

56

Echinoderms

Starfish

57

Chondrichthyans

Sharks

58

List three traits of a tetrapod

1.) four limbs
2.) can be aquatic
3.) vertebrates

59

Why are some animals classified as Medusozoans?

In one of their steps of life they are in the form of medusa

60

What is the function of the immune system?

Body's defense against pathogens (agents that cause disease)

61

What is the difference between innate and adaptive immunity?

Innate immunity is an immediate response to a pathogen. Only certain animals have adaptive immunity, and it is a slower response

62

List three aspects that are common in the inner defense

Self-tolerance, immunological memory, diversity of lymphocytes and receptors

63

What is an epitope?

The small accessible part of an antigen that binds to an antigen receptor

64

What are the four types of phagocytic cells and their functions?

Macrophages (present all over body), neutrophils (engulf antigens), dendritic cells (signal), eosinophils (fight infections)

65

What is the process called when major histocompatibility complex molecules bind and transport antigen fragments to the cell surface?

Antigen presentation

66

Adaptive responses rely on what two types of cells?

T and B cells

67

What must happen at the level of the DNA to guarantee the generation of different antigen receptors?

The DNA must be randomly arranged

68

What is the function of memory cells?

They help immunological memory so that if an antigen or pathogen comes back, the body recognizes it and attacks it immediately

69

How do phagocytic cells recognize groups of pathogens?

They use toll-like receptors to recognize pathogens on the cell wall

70

Name three different types of antibodies

IgA, IgG, IgE, IgM, IgD

71

What are autoimmune diseases? Name a couple.

Diseases where the body attacks itself. Diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis

72

What happens in septic shock?

The whole body gets infected and organs begin to shut down over reaction; happens because of an extreme inflammatory response

73

Which organ system is producing chemical signaling called hormones?

Endocrine system

74

What is the difference between hormones and pheromones?

Pheromones are in the environment and hormones are secreted in the body

75

Hormones can belong to three types of macromolecules, which ones?

?

76

True or false: hormones reach all parts of the body, but inky target cells have receptors for that hormone and can respond

True

77

What is the difference between paracrine signaling and autocrine signaling?

Paracrine: Target cells lie near secreting cells
Autocrine: Target cell is also the secreting cell

78

Which type of feedback results in reinforcing a stimulus to produce an even greater response?

Positive feedback

79

What is the function of melatonin?

Helps with sleep. Is secreted by the pineal gland

80

True or false: If a hormone is lipophylic it does not need a carrier to be transported through blood circulation

False: if it is hydrophilic it does not need a carrier

81

True or false: binding of a hormone to its receptor initiate a signal transduction pathway leading to responses in the cytoskeleton, enzyme activation, or a change in gene expression

True.

82

Both pituitary gland and adrenal gland are separated into two parts. What are they?

Pituitary: anterior and posterior
Adrenal: medulla and cortex

83

Melatonin

Pineal gland

84

T3 and T4

Thyroid

85

Calcitonin

Parathyroid

86

Growth hormone

Pituitary gland

87

Epinephrine

Adrenal gland

88

Insulin

Pancreas

89

What kind of symptoms can hypothyroidism cause?

Weight gain, being cold

90

Name the 5 sensory receptors

1. mechanoreceptors
2. chemoreceptors
3. electromagnetic receptors
4. thermoreceptors
5. pain receptors

91

True or false: all animals see color

False

92

Name two organisms that use electromagnetic receptors to detect stimuli

Whale, fish

93

True or false: nociceptors respond to light

False. They are pain receptors so they respond to pain

94

What are the two types of proteins responsible for muscle contractions?

Actin (thin filaments) and myosin (thick filaments)

95

Name 5 types of taste perceptions

Umani, bitter, sweet, salty, sour

96

Where is the sense of olfaction located?

The nose: smell; olfactory bulb in the brain

97

What is the difference between rods and cones?

Cones detect color; rods detect black and white

98

Insects have excellent color vision and can see UV light. What allows this to happen?

They have compound lenses and ommatidia that detect many colors

99

Ciliary muscles contract; suspensory ligaments relax

Near vision

100

Ciliary muscles relax; border of choroid moves away from lens; suspensory ligaments pull against lens

Distance vision

101

How many bones are there in the human ear?

3: malleus, incus, stipes

102

True or false: chemoreceptors sense physical deformation caused by stimuli such as pressure, stretch, motion, and sound

False-mechanoreceptors do

103

What is tetanus?

A state of smooth and sustained contraction produced when motor neurons deliver a volley of action potentials

104

Describe the three main types of skeletons and give one example for each type

Endoskeleton: human skeleton-hard interior
Exoskeleton: hard exterior; turtles, molluscs-soft tissue outside
Hydrostatic skeleton: traps fluid-worms/annelids

105

True or false: locomotion is active movement from place to place

True

106

Malthus publishes "Essay on the Principle of Population"

?

107

Lamarck publishes his hypothesis of evolution

1830

108

Hutton proposes his principle of gradualism

1795

109

Lyell publishes "Principle of Geology"

?

110

Wallace sends to Darwin his hypothesis of natural selection

?

111

Cuvier publishes his study on fossils

?

112

Darwin travels around the world

1831-1836

113

Who is the founder of taxonomy?

Linnaeus

114

What are fossils?

Remains from organisms often found in layers of sedentary rock called strata

115

What does homology mean?

Organisms that share similar structures due to sharing a common ancestor

116

In what type of rocks are fossils usually found?

Sedimentary/strata

117

What is the study of fossils called?

Paleontology

118

What are the four types of data for pattern of evolution?

Biogeography
Direct observation
Fossil record
Homology

119

The increase in the evolution of drug-resistant pathogens is due to ___

Natural selection

120

Define convergent evolution

Evolution where species from different places are similar-for example, sugar gliders and flying squirrels are similar but from different places

121

True or false: individuals evolve.

False. Only populations evolve and that takes time

122

What was Pangaea?

The first continent

123

Evolution can be described with Darwin's phrase: ___

Descent with modification

124

What is the difference between microevolution and macroevolution?

Microevolution consists of changes in allele frequency in a population over time. Macroevolution refers to broad patterns of evolutionary change above the species level

125

What are three mechanisms that cause allele frequency change?

1) natural selection
2) gene flow
3) genetic drift

126

What is the bottleneck effect?

Decrease in population number due to environmental factors

127

True or false: the Hardy Weinberg Principle says that frequencies of alleles and genotypes in a population remain constant from generation to generation.

True

128

What is the equation for Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium?

p2 + 2pq + q2 = 1

129

When does the founder effect occur

When a species becomes isolated from other populations

130

Define genetic drift

It reduces variation in alleles, it gets rid of harmful alleles, and it causes there to be overall less variation. It occurs in small populations.

131

True or false: a neutral mutation causes no advantage or disadvantage

True

132

What is the difference between intrasexual and intersexual selection?

Intrasexual: organisms from the same species/gender directly compete for mates of opposite gender. Intersexual: when opposite sex organisms are choosy about their mates and look for distinct characteristics that make them attractive like bright feathers.

133

What are the 5 conditions for non-evolving populations?

1) no mutations
2) random mating
3) no natural selection
4) very large population
5) no gene flow

134

What are some reasons why natural selection cannot fashion perfect organisms?

It can only work with already existing traits so it can't create its own perfect traits. It relies on past organisms and how they have developed overtime. Environmental factors have a huge influence and cannot really be controlled.

135

True or false: a mutation is always harmful

False

136

Two species interact rarely due to different environments

Habitat isolation

137

Species which breed at different times in a day, different seasons, different years

Temporal isolation

138

Barriers to mating due to unique species and courtship rituals

Behavioral isolation

139

Unsuccessful mating due to morphological differences

Mechanical isolation

140

Sperm of one species may not fertilize an egg of another

Gametic isolation

141

Name a post-zygotic barrier that could prevent the offspring of sexual reproduction

Hybrid breakdown, reduced hybrid fertility, hybrid viability

142

What are hybrids?

Organisms that develop from two organisms from different species and are infertile-like a mule or donkey

143

Define speciation

The formation of a new species

144

Indicate the difference between sympatric and allopatric speciation and give an example for each

Allopatric: mating despite geographic isolation; grolar bear.
Sympatric: mating of species from same place/environment

145

What is polyploidy? Is it more common in animals or plants?

Polyploidy is when excess chromosomes are in an organism. It is more common in plants than in animals.

146

What islands did Charles Darwin travel to that made his work famous?

Galápagos Islands

147

Reproductive barriers increase

Reinforcement

148

Continued formation of hybrid species

Stability

149

Reproductive barriers continue to weaken

Fusion

150

What is a hybrid zone?

A zone where hybrids mate and produce offspring

151

What are the oldest known fossils?

Stromatolites

152

What is the correct order in hierarchical classification of an organism from specific to broad?

Species, genus, family, order, class, phylum, kingdom, domain

153

What is the most common technique to determine the age of a fossil?

Radiometric dating

154

How long ago wS the earth created?

4.6 billion years ago

155

What was the first genetic material?

RNA

156

Fossil records favor species that were ___

Around for a long time, had hard parts, were widespread

157

What is phylogeny?

The ancestors/descendants of a species

158

A ___ is a unit of hierarchy at any level

Taxon

159

Includes distantly related species but does not include their most recent common ancestor

Polyphyletic

160

An ancestral species and some but not all of the descendants

Paraphyletic

161

Includes the ancestor and all its descendants

Monophyletic

162

Describe each of the five parts of a phylogenetic tree

Branch point-ancestors separate & are from different origins
Sister taxa-directly related ancestors
Rooted tree- organisms share common ancestor at base of tree
Basal taxon- unit hierarchy
Polytomy- more than two sister taxa

163

What is a clade? Give an example.

A group of descendants and their ancestors from their species. Whales.

164

What is the molecular clock?

Calculates evolutionary change

165

Two differences between gram positive and gram negative

Gram positive: lots of peptidoglycan in cell wall
Gram negative: less peptidoglycan in cell wall

166

True or false: thermophiles live in highly saline environments. Extreme halophiles thrive in very hot environments

False; other way

167

What are the three most common shapes of prokaryotes?

Rod, coccli, spiral

168

What are the three parts that composed the bacterial flagella?

Motor unit, rod, sporocytes

169

True or false: prokaryotes reproduce through mitosis

False; binary fusion

170

What is the name of the process where genetic material is transferred between prokaryotic cells?

Conjugation

171

True or false: prokaryotic cells have organelles and are more complex than eukaryotic cells.

False

172

Give an example of Excavata

Parabasalids

173

Give an example of SAR clade

?

174

Give an example of archaeaplastidia

?

175

Give an example of unikonta

?

176

True or false: endosymbiosis is a relationship between two species in which one organism lives inside the cell or cells of the other organism

True

177

Define mixotrophs

Protists that combine photosynthesis and heterotrophic nutrition

178

What is alternation of generations?

Fluctuation between diploid and haploid stages in plants

179

How do fungi break down complex molecules into smaller organic compounds?

They use enzymes

180

What is the specialized hyphae that some unique fungi have that allows them to penetrate the tissues of their host?

Haustoria

181

Fungi reproduction is special because two cells cytoplasms and nuclei can fuse independently. What are these two processes called?

?

182

A lichen us a symbiotic association between a photosynthetic microorganism and a fungus. Give three characteristics of a lichen

?

183

What type of fungus is the yeast?

Ascomycete

184

Name a disease in humans due to bacteria

?

185

Name a disease in humans due to protist

?

186

Name a disease in humans due to fungus

Athlete's foot

187

What are the traits that land plants share only with charophytes?

Multicellular, algae-brown, golden

188

List the five key traits that appear in nearly all land plants but are not present in charophytes

Multicellular gametangia
Dependent embryos
Walled spores
Alteration of generations
Apical meristems

189

What is sporopollenin? What organisms have it?

It prevents zygotes from dying out

190

Give ex of non-vascular plant

Bryophytes, moss

191

Give ex of vascular plant w/o seed

?

192

Give ex of vascular plant with seeds

?

193

What parts does a flower have to be a complete flower?

Carpel, stamen, petal, sepal

194

Name two advantages to pollen vs sperm

Easier to spread around-wind, animals
Reproduction is more efficient

195

What does a seed consist of?

Embryo and protective coat

196

What is a cuticle?

Protective film covering leaves

197

What is pollination?

Transferring sperm to ovule, allows flower/plant to grow. Spermatogenesis goes to female tube and fertilizes

198

True or false: phloem conducts most of the water and minerals and includes tube-shaped cells called tracheas

False; xylem carry water, phloem carry glucose

199

True or false: a club moss is a bryophyte

False

200

Why in angiosperms do we talk about double fertilization?

There are two sperms. One fertilizes the egg forming a diploid zygote; other fuses with two polar nuclei

201

What is one similarity between platelets and erythrocytes?

Both do not contain a nucleus so they will not survive for a long time

202

What causes sickle-cell disease?

Abnormal hemoglobin proteins that form aggregates which can deform. Sickled cells can rupture or block blood vessels

203

What plays a big role in coagulation?

Calcium and vitamin k

204

What is a cardiovascular disease that is caused by the buildup of fatty acids, or plaque, within arteries?

Atherosclerosis

205

What is the difference between LDL (low density lipoprotein) and HDL (high-density lipoprotein)?

LDL delivers cholesterol to cells for membrane production and HDL collects excess cholesterol so that it can be returned to the liver

206

Gas exchange supplies ___ for cellular respiration and disposes of ___

O2; CO2

207

Surfaces used by animals for respiration include:

Skin, lungs, gills, tracheae

208

How do fish gills work for respiration?

Fish gills use a countercurrent exchange system where the water passing over the gills is going in the opposite direction as the fish's blood. The blood has less oxygen than the water

209

Give an example of an animal that has an open circulatory system

Grasshopper

210

What are the types of circulatory fluid? Give examples of animals that have each.

Hemolymph and hemoglobin. A grasshopper has hemolymph. Frogs, fish, and pandas have hemoglobin

211

The solute concentration of a solution is ___

Osmolarity

212

What is the main organ of excretion for marine fish?

Gills because their kidneys do not work as well

213

How do birds conserve water?

Birds excrete uric acid instead of urea

214

What kind of excretory organ does a flatworm have? What type of waste is produced?

Protonephridia; ammonia

215

True or false: water enters and leaves cells by osmosis

True

216

What kind of excretory organ does a freshwater fish have? What type of waste is produced?

Kidney; ammonia

217

What kind of excretory organ does a panda have? What type of waste is produced?

Kidneys; urea

218

What type of excretory organ does a grasshopper have? What type of waste is produced?

Malphigians tubules; uric acid

219

What is the difference between osmoconformers and osmoregulators?

Osmoconformers: isoosmotic w/ surroundings. Do not regulate their osmolarity.

Osmoregulators: expend their energy to control water uptake and loss in a hyperosmotic or hypoosmotic environment

220

What is the difference between stenohaline and euryhaline animals?

Most animals are stenohaline and cannot tolerate big changes in external osmolarity. Euryhaline animals can survive large fluctuations in external osmolarity.

221

What is the axon hillock?

Cone shaped structure where an action potential is established

222

Supporting cells that help with transmitting information and are intermingled with neurons

Glia cells

223

What makes up the CNS (central nervous system)?

Brain and spinal cord

224

What does the PNS (peripheral nervous system) do?

Carries information in and out of the CNS

225

What is the difference between intracellular concentration and extracellular concentration?

Intracellular concentration is how many ions are inside of the cell. Extracellular is how many ions are outside of cell

226

When a membrane potential becomes even more negative, potassium gets out, and the inside of the cell becomes negative it is called ___

Hyperpolarization

227

When a membrane potential becomes positive, there is a reduction in magnitude of the membrane potential, and sodium goes inside of the cell it is called ___.

Depolarization

228

When sodium channels close and potassium channels open, and potassium comes into the cell to recreate the membrane potential, it is called ___

Repolarization

229

Which neurotransmitter has to do with anxiety disorders and hallucinations?

Serotonin

230

Which neurotransmitter has to do with Parkinson's disease and drug addiction?

Dopamine

231

Which neurotransmitter has to do with ADHD and amphetamines?

Norepinephrine

232

What is a set of interconnected nerve cells called?

A nerve net

233

What animal has a brain, 2 nerve cords, and transverse nerves?

Flatworm

234

What animal has a brain, a ventral nerve cord, and segmental ganglia?

Grasshopper

235

What has no brain, an anterior nerve ring, and longitudinal nerve cords?

Chiton

236

In vertebrates, what is a difference between the CNS and the PNS? What is a similarity?

The CNS is composed of the brain and spinal cord. The PNS is composed of nerves and ganglia. A similarity is that both are known for region specialization.

237

What are segmentally arranged clusters of neurons called?

Ganglia

238

What do radial glial cells and astrocytes both act as?

Stem cells

239

What is the difference between gray matter and white matter?

Gray matter consists of neuron cell bodies, dendrites, and unmyelinated axons. White matter consists of bundles of myelinated axons

240

What regulates arousal and the "fight-or-flight" response? What promotes calming?

Sympathetic division; parasympathetic division

241

Which brain structure is most important to the storage of emotion in the memory?

The amygdala