Flashcards in Ch. 32: Burns Part 2 Deck (30):
What are 5 steps for nursing actions of wound care?
1. Pre-medicate as prescribed
2. Remove previous dressings
3. Assess for odors, draining, or discharge
4. Cleanse wound as prescribed
5. Assist with debridement
What medication may we give to pre-medicate?
2. Hydroxyzine or diphenhydramine for pruritis
In assist with debridement, what needs to be done?
Provide hydrotherapy to cleanse the wound--use once or twice a day for up to 20 min
*use mild soap/detergent to gently wash burns, then rinse with room temp water
*encourage active ROM during hydrotherapy
*Monitor for cold stress and hypothermia
What are the 3 types of biological skin coverings?
Synthetic skin coverings
Biological skin coverings may be used to promote healing of _____. What does it require?
Large burns; requires repeated surgical application
Biological: skin from human cadavers that is used for partial and full thickness burn wounds
Biological: Obtained from animals, such as pigs, for partial thickness burn wounds
Biological: Used for partial thickness burn wounds
Synthetic skin covering
Permanent skin coverings may be the treatment of choice for burns covering _______
Large areas of the body
What are the 2 types of permanent skin coverings?
Autograft (3 types of autografts)
What is an autograft?
Permeant skin covering: What are the 3 types of autografts?
Permanent skin covering-Autografts
Sheet of skin used to cover the wound
Permanent skin covering-Autograft
Sheet of skin placed in a mesher so skin graft has small slits in it; allows grafts to cover larger areas of burn wound
Permanent skin covering-Autograft
Epithelial cells cultured for use when grafting sites are limited
Permanent skin covering:Synthetic product that is used for partial and full thickness burn wounds. Healing slower or faster?
Artificial skin; healing is faster
Skin coverings: Should graft site be movable?
No, maintain immobilization of the graft site
Skin coverings: Should we elevate extremity or let it relax in normal body alignment?
What are some signs of infection to a skin graft?
-Discoloration of unburned skin surrounding burn wound
-Green color to SQ fat
-Degeneration of granulation tissue
-Development of subeschar hemorrhage
-Unstable body temp
What should we instruct the client about their skin covering?
Keep extremity ELEVATED
Report signs of infection
Complications: Inhalation injury- Direct thermal injury
Occurs with burns to ____.
Can be delayed ____ hrs.
Face and lips
Wheezing, increased secretions, hoarseness, wet crackles in lungs, singed nasal hairs, laryngeal edema, carbonaceous secretion
Maintain airway and ventilation; proved 100% o2 if prescribed
Complications: Inhalation injury-Carbon monoxide injury
Incident took place in an enclosed area
Findings: Mucosal erythema and edema, followed by sloughing of the mucosa
Maintain airway and ventilation; provide 100% o2 if prescribed
Complications: Shock/systemic sepsis
What do we administer?
What do we monitor?
What do we assess?
Administer: IV crystalloid solutions for first 24 hours, followed by colloid solutions
Monitor: I&O, Labs, VS
Assess: Sensorium *confusion*; Cap refil
Complications: Pulmonary problems
How do maintain airway?
Maintain airway via intubation, sometimes tracheostomy
Administer oxygen as prescried
Complications: Wound infection
What type of technique when changing dressings?
Assess: discoloration, edema, odor, drainage, flucutations in temp and HR
Administer: Antibiotics as prescribed
Technique: SURGICAL ASEPTIC
A nurse is caring for a client who has a superficial partial thickness burn. Which of the following is an appropriate action for the nurse to take?
A. Administer IV of 0.9% sodium chloride
B. Apply cool, wet compresses to affected area
C. Clean affected area using a soft-bristle brush
D. Administer morphine sulfate
A nurse is caring for a client who has major burns and suspected septic shock. Which of the following findings are consistent with septic shock? (select all that apply)
A. Increased body temp
B. Altered sensorium
C. Decreased cap refill
D. Decreased urine output
E. Increased bowel sounds
A, B, D
A nurse is caring for a client who has a major burn and is experiencing severe pain. Which of the following is an appropriate nursing intervention to manage this client's pain?
A. Morphine sulfate IV continuous
B. Meperidine IM as needed
C. Acetaminophen PO every 4 hours
D. Hydrocodone PO every 6 hours
A nurse is caring for a client who has a skin graft. Which of the following clinical manifestations indicate infection? (select all that apply)
A. Green color to SQ fat
B. Unstable body temp
C. Generation of granulation tissue
D. Subeschar hemorrhage
E. Change in skin color around affected area
A. B, D, E