Ch.13 Social Psychology Flashcards Preview

Introduction to Psychology > Ch.13 Social Psychology > Flashcards

Flashcards in Ch.13 Social Psychology Deck (44):
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Social Psychology

Study of the causes and consequences of sociality

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Aggression

Behavior with the purpose of harming another

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Frustration-Aggression Hypothesis

Animals aggress when their desires are frustrated

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Cooperation

Behavior that leads to mutual benefit

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Group

Collection of people who have something in common

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Prejudice

Positive or negative evaluation of another person based on group membership

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Discrimination

Positive or negative behavior toward another person based on their group membership

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Common Knowledge Effect

Tendency for group discussions to focus on information that all members share

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Group Polarization

Tendency for groups to make decisions that are more extreme than any member would have made alone

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Groupthink

Tendency for groups to reach consensus in order to facilitate interpersonal harmony

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Deindividuation

Immersion in a group causes people to become less concerned with their personal values

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Diffusion of responsibility

Tendency for individuals to feel diminished responsibility for their actions when they are surrounded by others who are acting the same way

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Social Loagin

Tendency for people to expend less effort when in a group than alone

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Bystander Intervention

Act of helping strangers in emergency situations

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Altruism

Behavior that benefits another without benefiting oneself

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Kin Selection

Process by which evolution selects for individuals who cooperate with their relatives

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Reciprocal Altruism

Behavior that benefits another with the expectation that those benefits will be returned in the future

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Mere Exposure Effect

Tendency for liking to increase with the frequency of exposure

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Passionate Love

Experience involving feelings of euphoria, intimacy and intense sexual attraction

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Companionate Love

Experience involving affection, trust and concern for a partner's well-being

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Social Exchange

Hypothesis that people remain in relationships only as long as they perceive a favorable ratio of costs to benefits

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Social Influence

Ability to control another person's behavior

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Norms

Customary standards for behavior that are widely shared by members of a culture

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Norm of Reciprocity

Unwritten rule that people should benefit those who have benefited them

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Normative Influence

Occurs when another person's behavior provides information about what is appropriate

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Door in the face Technique

Influence strategy that involves getting someone to deny an initial request

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Conformity

Tendency to do what others do simply because others are doing it

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Obedience

Tendency to do what powerful people tell us to do

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Attitude

Enduring positive or negative evaluation of an object or event

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Belief

Enduring piece of knowledge about an object or event

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Informational Influence

Another person's behavior provides information about what is true

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Persuasion

Person's attitudes or beliefs are influenced by a communication from another

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Systematic Persuasion

Changed by appeals to reason

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Heuristic Persuasion

Changed by appeals to habit or emotion

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Foot in the door Technique

Making a small request and then following it with a larger request

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Cognitive Dissonance

Unpleasant state when person recognizes the inconsistency of his or her actions, attitudes, or beliefs

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Social Cognition

Processes by which people come to understand others

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Stereotyping

Process by which people draw inferences about others based on their knowledge of the categories to which others belong

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Self-fulfilling Prophecy

Tendency for people to behave as they are expected to behave

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Perceptual confirmation

Tendency for people to see what they expect to see

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Subtyping

Tendency for people who receive disconfirming evidence to modify their stereotypes rather than abandon them

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Attribution

Inferences about the causes of people's behavior

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Correspondence Bias

Tendency to make a dispositional attribution when we should instead make a situational attribution

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Actor-Observer Effect

Tendency to make situational attributions for our behaviors while making dispositional attributions for the identical behavior of others