Ch.15 Psychological Disorders Flashcards Preview

Introduction to Psychology > Ch.15 Psychological Disorders > Flashcards

Flashcards in Ch.15 Psychological Disorders Deck (63):
1

Mental Disorder

Persistent disturbance or dysfunction in behavior, thoughts or emotions that causes significant distress or impairment

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History of Disorders

Result of religious or supernatural forces; people are feared and ridiculed for deviating from the normal

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Medical Model

Abnormal psychological experiences conceptualized as illnesses that, like physical illnesses have biological and environmental causes, defined symptoms, and possible cures

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Diagnosis

First step to determining the nature of the problem, assessing signs and symptoms

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Signs

Objectively observed indicators

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Symptoms

Subjectively reported behavior, thoughts and emotions

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Disease

Known pathological process affecting the body

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Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders

Standardized system for classifying mental disorders, describing features used to diagnose each recognized mental disorder and indicating how the disorder can be distinguished from another

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Comorbidity

Co-occurrence of two or more disorders in a single individual

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Etiology

Pattern of causes

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Prognosis

A typical course over time and susceptibility to treatment and cure

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Biopsychosocial Perspective

Explains mental disorders as the result of interactions among biological, psychological and social factors

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Diathesis-Stress Model

Person may be predisposed for a psychological disorder that remains unexpressed until triggered by stress

14

Research Domain Criteria Project (RDoC)

Guide to classification and understanding of mental disorders by revealing the basic processes that give rise to them

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Anxiety Disorder

Class of mental disorder in which anxiety is the predominant feature

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Phobic

Marked, persistent and excessive fear and avoidance of specific objects, activities or situations

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Specific Phobia

Irrational fear that interferes with an individual's ability to function

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Social Phobia

Irrational fear of being publicly humiliated or embarrassed

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Preparedness Theory

People are instinctively predisposed toward certain fears

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Panic Disorder

Sudden occurrence of multiple psychological and physiological symptoms that contribute to a feeling of stark terror

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Agrophobia

Phobia of public places

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Sodium Lactate

Chemical that produces rapid, shallow breathing and heart palpitations

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Generalized Anxiety Disorder

Unrelenting worries not focused on any particular threat; restlessness, fatigue, concentration problems, irritability, muscle tension and sleep disturbace

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OCD

Repetitive, intrusive thoughts and ritualistic behaviors designed to fend off those thoughts interfere significantly with an individual's functioning

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PTSD

Chronic physiological arousal, recurrent unwanted thoughts or images of the trauma, and avoidance of things that call the traumatic event to mind

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Mood Disorders

Mood disturbance as predominant feature

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Depressive Disorder

Severely depressed mood and inability to experience pleasure that lasts 2 or more weeks, accompanied by feelings of worthlessness, lethargy and sleep and appetite disturbance.

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Dysthymia

Same cognitive and bodily problems as in depression are present, but they are less severe and last longer, persisting for at least two years

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Double Depression

Moderately depressed mood that persists for at least two years and is punctuated by periods of major depression

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Seasonal Affective Disorder

Recurrent depressive episodes in a seasonal pattern

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Helplessness Theory

Individuals who are prone to depression automatically attribute negative experiences to causes that are internal (their own fault), stable (unlikely to change), global (widespread)

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Negative Schema

Biases in interpretations of information, attention, memory

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Bipolar Disorder

Cycles of abnormal, persistent, high mood and low mood

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Expressed Emotion

Measure of how much hostility, criticism and emotional over-involvement are used when speaking about a family member with a mental disorder

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Schizophrenia

Profound disruption of basic psychological processes; distorted perception of reality; altered or blunted emotion; disturbances in thought

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Positive Symptoms

Not seen in those without the disorder: Hallucinations, Delusions, Disorganized speech & behavior

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Negative Symptoms

Deficits to normal emotions and behaviours

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Cognitive Symptoms

Deficits to cognitive abilities

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Dopamine Hypothesis

Idea that schizophrenia involves an excess of dopamine activity

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ASD

Beginning in early childhood in which a person shows persistent communication deficits as well as restricted and repetitive patterns of behaviors, interests, or activities

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ADHD

Persistent pattern of severe problems with inattention and hyperactivity or impulsiveness that cause significant impairments in functioning

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Conduct Disorder

Persistent pattern of deviant behavior involving aggression to people or animals, destruction to property

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Personality Disorders

Enduring patterns of thinking, feeling or relating to others

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Types of Personality Disorders

odd/eccentric
dramatic/erratic
anxious/inhibited

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Antisocial Personality Disorder

Pervasive pattern of disregard for and violation of the rights of others

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Suicide

Intentional self-inflicted death

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Suicide Attempt

Intention of dying

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Non-Suicidal Self-Injury

Direct, deliberate destruction of body tissue in the absence of any intent to die

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[Lecture] Andrea Yates

Murdered all four of her children and drowned them one by one, and called the police

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[Lecture] Bedlam Hospital

One of the first major asylums for mental illnesses

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[Lecture] Phillip Pinel

To understand these people, we must interact with these people

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[Lecture] Nosology

Classification of diseases, dividing the world of illnesses to different types

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[Lecture] Medical Student Syndrome

Medical students have a conviction that they have the disorder they discuss in class. Symptoms can be confusing; they can mean different things.

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[Lecture] Physical VS Mental Illnesses

Mental illnesses differ from physical illnesses because physical illnesses can be tested—there are tests for that—while there is none for mental illnesses. Thus you’re left with just looking at the symptoms = problematic.

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[Lecture] Problems of Classification

1) Basis of symptoms
2) Continual vs discrete nature
3) Comorbidity
4) Ethnic / cultural considerations

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[Lecture] GAD

Worry about future

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[Lecture] Panic

Worry about body

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[Lecture] Phobia

Worry about specific object

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[Lecture] OCD

Worry about thought

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[Lecture] PTSD

Worry about past experience

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[Lecture] Etiology

Causes

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[Lecture] Neuropsychology vs Psychopathology

Neuropsychology examines how overt brain injury affects cognition. Psychopathology examines how covert brain injury affects cognition. This is the difference. The latter is more complicated, because we suspect that there are underlying issues, but instead we end up having to work with symptoms instead.

63

[Lecture] Diathesis-Stress Model

Preexisting risk or propensity to possess something, but this is not enough. There must be a stressor that makes risk factor manifest.