Ch.11 Development Flashcards Preview

Introduction to Psychology > Ch.11 Development > Flashcards

Flashcards in Ch.11 Development Deck (55):
1

Developmental Psychology

Study of continuity and change across the life span

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Zygote

Fertilized egg that contains chromosomes from both an egg and sperm

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Germinal Stage

Two week period that begins at conception in which zygote migrates back down the fallopian tube and implants itself in the wall of the uterus

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Embryonic Stage

Period that lasts from the 2nd week until the 8th week in which cells begin to differentiate

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Fetal Stage

Period that lasts from the 9th week until birth in which the fetus has a skeleton and muscles that allow movement

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Myelination

Formation of fatty sheath around neuron axons

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Placenta

Organ that physically bloodstreams of the mother and the embryo or fetus and permits exchange of certain chemicals

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Teratogens

Agents that impair development like environmental poisons

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Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS)

Developmental disorder that stems from heavy alcohol by the mother during pregnancy

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Infancy

Stage of development that begins at birth and lasts between 18 and 24 months

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Motor Development

Emergence of ability to execute physical actions such as reaching, rasping, crawling and walking

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Cephalocaudal Rule

Tendency for motor skills to emerge in sequence from the head to the feet

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Proximodistal Rule

Tendency for motor stills to emerge in sequence from the center to the periphery

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Cognitive Development

Emergence of ability to think and understand

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Sensorimotor Stage

Period of development that begins at birth through infancy in which infants busy themselves with ability to sense

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Schema

Theories about the way the world works

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Assimilation

Infants apply schemas in novel situations

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Accommodation

Infants revise their schemas in light of new information

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Object Permanence

Belief that objects exist even when they are not visible

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Childhood

Period at 18-24 months to 11-14 years

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Preoperational Stage

Stage that begins about 2 years to 6 years, during which children develop preliminary understanding of the world

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Concrete Operational Stage

6-11 years, children learn how actions or operations can transform the concrete objects of the physical world

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Conservation

Quantitative properties of an object are invariant despite changes in the object's appearance

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Centration

Tendency to focus on just one property of an object

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Mental Representations

Mind versus real world

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Formal Operational Stage

Final stage of cognitive development during which children learn to reason about abstract concepts

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Egocentrism

Failure to understand that the world appears differently to different people

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Theory of Mind

Understanding that other people's mental representations guide their behavior

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Strange Situation

Behavioral test used to determine child's attachment style

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Temperaments

Characteristic patterns of emotional reactivity

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Internal Working Model of Relationships

A set of beliefs about the self and primary caregiver

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Preconventional Stage

Morality of action is primarily determined by consequences

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Conventional Stage

Morality of action is primarily determined by the extent to which it conforms to social rules

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Postconventional Stage

Morality is determined by a set of general principles that reflect core values

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Adolescence

Onset of sexual maturity to beginning of adulthood

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Puberty

Bodily changes associated with sexual maturity

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Secondary Sex Characteristics

Enlargement of breasts, widening of hips, appearance of hair, etc

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Adulthood

Ends with death

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[Lecture] Preformationism

Entire child rolled up in sperm cell

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[Lecture] Precocial

Animals ready to survive on their own upon birth

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[Lecture] Altricial

Animals with a long period of immaturity and inability to survive on their own

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[Lecture] Developmental Psychology

How changes happen

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[Lecture] Jean Piaget

Grandfather of Developmental Psychology

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[Lecture] Constructivism

View that children are not passive internalizers of knowledge

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[Lecture] Assimilation

Process by which children translate information into a form they understand

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[Lecture] Accommodation

Process by which children revise current knowledge structures

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[Lecture] Equilibration

Process by which children balance assimilation and accommodation to create stable understanding

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[Lecture] Stadial Theory

Development occurs in distinct stages

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[Lecture] Sensorimotor Stage Failures

Object Permanence

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[Lecture] Preoperational Stage Failures

Conservation
Transitivity
Egocentricity
Appearance VS Reality

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[Lecture] Transfer

Near and far transfer

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[Lecture] Habituation

One way of testing what infants know

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[Lecture] Décalage

Discontinuity / gap

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[Lecture] False Consensus Effect

Whatever you choose seems to be what others will do

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[Lecture] Perseveration

Doing things based on your rhythm