Chapter 6 Memory Flashcards Preview

Introduction to Psychology > Chapter 6 Memory > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 6 Memory Deck (44):
1

Memory

Ability to store and retrieve information over time

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Encoding

Process of transforming what we perceive, think or feel into an enduring memory

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Storage

Process of maintaining information in memory over time

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Retrieval

Process of bringing to mind information in memory over time

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Semantic Encoding

Process of relating new information in a meaningful way to knowledge that is already stored in memory

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Visual Imagery Encoding

Process of storing new information by converting it into mental pictures

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Organizational Encoding

Process of categorizing information according to the relationships among a series of items

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Sensory Memory

Type of storage that holds sensory information for a few seconds or less

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Iconic Memory

Fast-decaying store of visual information

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Echoic Memory

Fast-decaying store of auditory information

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Short-Term Memory

Holds nonsensory information for more than a few seconds but less than a minute

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Rehearsal

Process of keeping information in short-term memory by mentally repeating it

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Chunking

Combining small pieces of information into larger clusters or chunks that are more easily held in short-term memory

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Working Memory

Active maintenance of information in short-term storage

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Long-Term Memory

Type of storage that holds information for hours, days, weeks or years

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Anterograde Amnesia

Inability to transfer new information from the short-term store into the long-term store

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Retrograde Amnesia

Inability to retrieve information that was acquired before a particular date

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Consolidation

Process by which memories become stable in the brain

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Reconsolidation

Consolidated memories can become vulnerable to disruption when they are recalled, thus requiring them to be consolidated again

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Long-Term Potentiation

Process whereby communication across the synapse between neurons strengthens the connection making further communication easier

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Retrieval Cue

External information that is associated with stored information and helps bring it to mind

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Encoding Specificity Principle

Retrieval cue an serve as an effective reminder when it helps recreate the specific way in which information was initially encoded

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State-Dependent Retrieval

Tendency for information to be better recalled when the person is in the same state during encoding and retrieval

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Transfer-Appropriate Processing

Idea that memory is likely to transfer from one situation to another when the encoding and retrieval contexts of the situations match

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Retrieval-Induced Forgetting

Process by which retrieving an item from long-term memory impairs subsequent recall of related items

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Explicit Memory

Occurs when people consciously or intentionally retrieve past experiences

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Implicit Memory

Occurs when past experiences influence later behaviour and performance even without an effort to remember them or an awareness of recollection

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Procedural Memory

Gradual acquisition of skills as a result of practice or knowing how to do things

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Priming

Enhanced ability to think of a stimulus, such as a word or object, as a result of a recent exposure to the stimulus

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Semantic Memory

Network of associated facts and concepts that make up our general knowledge of the world

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Episodic Memory

Collection of past personal experiences that occurred at a particular time and place

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Transcience

Forgetting what occurs with the passage of time

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Retroactive Interference

Situations in which later learning impairs memory for information acquired earlier

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Proactive Interference

Situations in which earlier learning impairs memory for information acquired later

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Absentmindedness

A lapse in attention that results in memory failure

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Prospective Memory

Remembering to do things in the future

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Blocking

Failure to retrieve information that is available in memory even though you are trying to produce it

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Memory Misattribution

Assigning a recollection or an idea to the wrong source

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Source Memory

Recall of when, where and how information was acquired

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False Recognition

Feeling of familiarity about something that hasn't been encountered before

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Suggestibility

Tendency to incorporate misleading information from external sources into personal recollections

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Bias

Distorting influence of present knowledge, beliefs, and feelings on recollection of previous experiences

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Persistence

Intrusive recollection of events that we wish we could forget

44

Flashbulb Memories

Detailed recollections of when and where we heard about shocking events