The theory that the tension producing effects of incongruous cognitions motivate individuals to reduce such tension.
State of conflict someone experiences after making a decision, taking an action, or being exposed to information that is contrary to prior beliefs, feelings or values.
The idea that people observe themselves to figure out the reasons they act as they do; people infer what their internal states are by perceiving how they are acting in a given situation.
A change in behaviour consistent with a communication sources's direct requests.
An expectation that favours will be returned-if someone does something for another person, that person should do something in return.
A learned attitude toward a target object, involving negative affect (dislike or fear), negative beliefs (stereotypes) that justify the attitude, and a behavioural intention to avoid, control, dominate or eliminate the target object.
The process by which people organise the social environment by categorising themselves and others into groups.
a group with which people identify as members.
The groups with which people do not identify
An evaluation of one's own group as better than others.
Discrimination against people based on their skin colour or ethnic heritage.
Discrimination against people because of their sex.
Generalisations about a group of people in which the same characteristics are assigned to all members of a group.
The prediction that contact between groups will reduce prejudice only if the contact includes features such as cooperation toward shared goals.
Behaviours that cause psychological or physical harm to another individual.
Behaviour that is carried out with the goal of helping other people.
Prosocial behaviours a person carries out without considering his or her own safety or interests.
An impulsive act of anger toward a person in response to a situation that could be resolved through collaborative problem solving or good communication strategies. Impulsive aggression is mostly connect to people who have poor impulse control and act out out their frustrations behaviourally, rather than address them cognitively.
Cognition-based and goal-directed aggression carried out with premeditated thought to achieve specific aims.
According to this hypothesis, frustration occurs in situations in which people are prevented or blocked from attaining their goals; a rise in frustration then leads to a greater probability of aggression.
The idea that people perform altruistic behaviours because they expect that others will perform altruistic behaviours for them in turn.
Willingness to assist a person in need of help.
In emergency situations, the larger the number of bystanders, the less responsibility any one of the bystanders feels to help.
Diffusion of responsibility?