Chap 10 Blood and Immunity Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chap 10 Blood and Immunity Deck (286):
1

cross-matching

Testing the compatibility of donor and recipient blood in preparation for a transfusion. Donor red cells are mixed with recipient serum, and red cells of the recipient are mixed with donor serum to look for an immunologic reaction. Similar tests are done on tissues before transplantation

2

A lymphocyte that matures in lymphoid tissue and is active in producing antibodies

B cell

3

autoimmune disease

A condition in which the immune system produces antibodies against an individual's own tissues

4

A diffuse disease of connective tissue that may involve any system causing inflammation, degeneration, and fibrosis. Also called scleroderma because it causes thickening of the skin

systemic sclerosis

5

hematoma

A localized collection of blood, usually clotted, caused by a break in a blood vessel

6

A protein produced in response to and interacting specifically with an antigen

antibody

7

An immunologic reaction of transplanted lymphocytes against tissues of the host; a common complication of bone marrow transplantation.

graft-versus-host reaction (GVHR)

8

An immature neutrophil with a nucleus in the shape of a band; also called a stab cell.

band cell

9

pernicious anemia

Anemia caused by failure of the stomach to produce intrinsic factor, a substance needed for the absorption of vitamin B12. This vitamin is required for the formation of erythrocytes.

10

erythrocytosis

Increase in the number of red cells in the blood; may be normal, such as to compensate for life at high altitudes, or abnormal, such as in cases of pulmonary or cardiac disease

11

Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. A highly sensitive immunologic test used to diagnose HIV infection, hepatitis, and Lyme disease, among others

ELISA

12

ROOT ferr/o, ferr/i

ROOT FOR iron (symbol Fe)

13

monocyte

An agranular phagocytic leukocyte

14

ROOT thrombocyt/o

ROOT FOR platelet, thrombocyte

15

Any condition in which there is a relative increase in the percent of red blood cells in whole blood. May result from excessive production of red cells because of lack of oxygen, as caused by high altitudes, breathing obstruction, heart failure, or certain forms of poisoning. Apparent polycythemia results from concentration of the blood, as by dehydration

polycythemia

16

macrophage

A phagocytic cell derived from a monocyte; usually located within the tissues. Process antigens for T cells

17

ROOT lymph/o, lymphocyt/o

ROOT FOR lymphocyte

18

The inactive precursor of fibrin

fibrinogen

19

The protein that forms a clot in the process of blood coagulation

fibrin

20

A small mass or body.

corpuscle

21

Hypersensitivity

allergy

22

Failure of the immune system caused by infection with HIV (human immunodeficiency virus). The virus infects certain T cells and thus interferes with immunity

AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome)

23

The fraction of the plasma that remains after blood coagulation; it is the equivalent of plasma without its clotting factors

serum

24

leukocyte

A white blood cell

25

polycythemia vera

A condition in which overactive bone marrow produces too many red blood cells. These interfere with circulation and promote thrombosis and hemorrhage. Treated by blood removal. Also called erythremia, Vasquez–Osler disease

26

Reed-Sternberg cells

Giant cells that are characteristic of Hodgkin disease. They usually have two large nuclei and are surrounded by a halo

27

A sediment obtained by cooling. The fraction obtained by freezing blood plasma contains clotting factors

cryoprecipitate

28

A substance found throughout the body that inhibits blood coagulation; an anticoagulant

heparin

29

SUFFIX -poiesis

SUFFIX FOR formation, production

30

An antibody. Fall into five classes, each abbreviated with a capital letter: IgG, IgM, IgA, IgD, IgE

immunoglobulin (Ig)

31

The fraction of the blood plasma that contains antibodies; given for passive transfer of immunity

gamma globulin

32

A decrease in all cells of the blood, as in aplastic anemia

pancytopenia

33

hemophilia

A hereditary blood disease caused by lack of a clotting factor and resulting in abnormal bleeding

34

ROOT FOR bone marrow

ROOT myel/o

35

An enzyme that dissolves clots; also called fibrinolysin

plasmin

36

HIV (human immunodeficiency virus)

The virus that causes AIDS

37

Condition in which bone marrow is replaced with fibrous tissue

myelofibrosis

38

An agent that prevents or delays blood coagulation

anticoagulant

39

A congenital or acquired failure of the immune system to protect against disease

immunodeficiency

40

A hereditary blood disease caused by lack of a clotting factor and resulting in abnormal bleeding

hemophilia

41

infectious mononucleosis

An acute infectious disease caused by Epstein–Barr virus (EBV). Characterized by fever, weakness, lymphadenopathy, hepatosplenomegaly, and atypical lymphocytes (resembling monocytes)

42

An agranular phagocytic leukocyte

monocyte

43

megakaryocyte

A large bone marrow cell that fragments to release platelets

44

urticaria

A skin reaction consisting of round, raised eruptions (wheals) with itching; hives

45

blood

The fluid that circulates in the cardiovascular system

46

immunodeficiency

A congenital or acquired failure of the immune system to protect against disease

47

A lymphocyte that matures in the thymus gland and attacks foreign cells directly

T cell

48

A white blood cell that does not have visible granules in its cytoplasm.

agranulocytes

49

antibody

A protein produced in response to and interacting specifically with an antigen

50

A primitive bone marrow cell that gives rise to all varieties of blood cells

hemopoietic stem cell

51

A hereditary bleeding disease caused by lack of von Willebrand factor, a substance necessary for blood clotting

von Willebrand disease

52

A large bone marrow cell that fragments to release platelets

megakaryocyte

53

Testing the compatibility of donor and recipient blood in preparation for a transfusion. Donor red cells are mixed with recipient serum, and red cells of the recipient are mixed with donor serum to look for an immunologic reaction. Similar tests are done on tissues before transplantation

cross-matching

54

Hairy cell leukemia

A form of leukemia in which cells have filaments, making them look “hairy”

55

ROOT FOR platelet, thrombocyte

ROOT thrombocyt/o

56

A form of leukemia in which cells have filaments, making them look “hairy”

Hairy cell leukemia

57

ROOT calc/i

ROOT FOR calcium (symbol Ca)

58

A powerful stimulant produced by the adrenal gland and sympathetic nervous system. Activates the cardiovascular, respiratory, and other systems needed to meet stress. Used as a drug to treat severe allergic reactions and shock. Also called adrenaline

epinephrine

59

An allergic reaction involving T cells that takes at least 12 hours to develop. Examples are various types of contact dermatitis, such as poison ivy or poison oak; the tuberculin reaction (test for TB); and rejections of transplanted tissue

delayed hypersensitivity reaction

60

An immunologic reaction to a substance that is harmless to most people; allergy

hypersensitivity

61

A deficiency in the amount of hemoglobin in the blood; may result from blood loss, malnutrition, a hereditary defect, environmental factors, and other causes

anemia

62

SUFFIX FOR decrease in, deficiency of

SUFFIX -penia

63

Anemia caused by inability to use available iron to manufacture hemoglobin. The excess iron precipitates in normoblasts (developing red blood cells)

sideroblastic anemia

64

neutrophil

A granular leukocyte that stains with acidic or basic dyes. The most numerous of the white blood cells. A type of phagocyte

65

Depression of the immune response. May be correlated with disease but also may be induced therapeutically to prevent rejection in cases of tissue transplantation

immunosuppression

66

A simple protein found in blood plasma

albumin

67

A white blood cell that has visible granules in its cytoplasm.

granulocytes

68

ROOT azot/o

ROOT FOR nitrogenous compounds

69

Hodgkin disease

A neoplastic disease of unknown cause that involves the lymph nodes, spleen, liver, and other tissues; characterized by the presence of giant Reed-Sternberg cells

70

agranulocytosis

A condition involving a decrease in the number of granulocytes in the blood; also called granulocytopenia

71

CD4+ T lymphocyte count

A count of the T cells that have the CD4 receptors for the AIDS virus (HIV). A count of less than 200/µL of blood signifies severe immunodeficiency.

72

leukemia

Malignant overgrowth of immature white blood cells; may be chronic or acute; may affect bone marrow (myelogenous) or lymphoid tissue (lymphocytic)

73

A neoplastic disease of unknown cause that involves the lymph nodes, spleen, liver, and other tissues; characterized by the presence of giant Reed-Sternberg cells

Hodgkin disease

74

apheresis

A procedure in which blood is withdrawn, a portion is separated and retained, and the remainder is returned to the donor.

75

A substance produced in the stomach that aids in the absorption of vitamin B12, necessary for the manufacture of red blood cells. Lack of causes pernicious anemia

intrinsic factor

76

The cellular components of blood

formed elements

77

ROOT erythr/o, erythrocyt/o

ROOT FOR red blood cell

78

ROOT natri

ROOT FOR sodium (symbol Na)

79

band cell

An immature neutrophil with a nucleus in the shape of a band; also called a stab cell.

80

hemoglobin (Hb, Hgb)

The iron-containing pigment in red blood cells that transports oxygen

81

ROOT FOR lymphocyte

ROOT lymph/o, lymphocyt/o

82

A pure antibody produced in the laboratory; used for diagnosis and treatment

monoclonal antibody

83

ROOT thromb/o

ROOT FOR blood clot

84

autologous blood

A person's own blood. May be donated in advance of surgery and transfused if needed

85

albumin

A simple protein found in blood plasma

86

Bone marrow dysfunction resulting in anemia and deficiency of neutrophils and platelets. May develop in time into leukemia; preleukemia

myelodysplastic syndrome

87

Treatment of allergy by small injections of the offending allergen. This causes an increase of antibody to destroy the antigen rapidly on contact

desensitization

88

ecchymosis

A collection of blood under the skin caused by leakage from small vessels

89

Congenital aplastic anemia that appears between birth and 10 years of age; may be hereditary or caused by damage before birth, as by a virus

Fanconi syndrome

90

antihistamine

A drug that counteracts the effects of histamine and is used to treat allergic reactions

91

A very sensitive test used to detect small amounts of antibodies in the blood

Western blot assay

92

A localized edema with large hives (wheals) similar to urticaria but involving deeper layers of the skin and subcutaneous tissue

angioedema

93

thrombin

The enzyme derived from prothrombin that converts fibrinogen to fibrin

94

Wright stain

A commonly used blood stain

95

ROOT kali

ROOT FOR potassium (symbol K)

96

aplastic anemia

Anemia caused by bone marrow failure resulting in deficient blood cell production, especially of red cells; pancytopenia

97

A person's own blood. May be donated in advance of surgery and transfused if needed

autologous blood

98

thalassemia

A group of hereditary anemias mostly found in populations of Mediterranean descent (the name comes from the Greek word for “sea”)

99

Inflammatory connective tissue disease affecting the skin and multiple organs. Patients are sensitive to light and may have a red butterfly-shaped rash over the nose and cheeks

systemic lupus erythematosus

100

ROOT FOR red blood cell

ROOT erythr/o, erythrocyt/o

101

The appearance of antibodies in the serum in response to a disease or an immunization

seroconversion

102

hemostasis

The stoppage of bleeding

103

anemia

A deficiency in the amount of hemoglobin in the blood; may result from blood loss, malnutrition, a hereditary defect, environmental factors, and other causes

104

formed elements

The cellular components of blood

105

A red blood cell

erythrocyte

106

plasmin

An enzyme that dissolves clots; also called fibrinolysin

107

allergy

Hypersensitivity

108

Enlargement of the spleen

splenomegaly

109

electrolyte

A substance that separates into charged particles (ions) in solution; a salt. Term also applied to ions in body fluids

110

Hereditary anemia in which red blood cells are round instead of disk-shaped and rupture (hemolyze) excessively

spherocytic anemia

111

pancytopenia

A decrease in all cells of the blood, as in aplastic anemia

112

SUFFIX -penia

SUFFIX FOR decrease in, deficiency of

113

fibrin

The protein that forms a clot in the process of blood coagulation

114

A white blood cell

leukocyte

115

granulocytes

A white blood cell that has visible granules in its cytoplasm.

116

antigen

A substance that induces the formation of an antibody

117

The rupture of red blood cells and the release of hemoglobin

hemolysis

118

Sjögren syndrome

An autoimmune disease involving dysfunction of the exocrine glands and affecting secretion of tears, saliva, and other body fluids. Deficiency leads to dry mouth, tooth decay, corneal damage, eye infections, and difficulty in swallowing

119

ROOT FOR iron

ROOT sider/o

120

An agranular leukocyte active in immunity (T cells and B cells); found in both the blood and in lymphoid tissue

lymphocyte

121

A mature form of a B cell that produces antibodies

plasma cell

122

ROOT FOR calcium (symbol Ca)

ROOT calc/i

123

A granular leukocyte that stains with basic dyes; active in allergic reactions

basophil

124

A condition characterized by hemorrhages into the skin, mucous membranes, internal organs, and other tissues (from Greek word meaning “purple”). Thrombocytopenic purpura is caused by a deficiency of platelets

purpura

125

SUFFIX -emia, -hemia

SUFFIX FOR condition of blood

126

sideroblastic anemia

Anemia caused by inability to use available iron to manufacture hemoglobin. The excess iron precipitates in normoblasts (developing red blood cells)

127

A test for detection of antibodies to red blood cells such as appear in cases of autoimmune hemolytic anemias

Coombs test

128

ROOT immun/o

ROOT FOR immunity, immune system

129

A substance that induces the formation of an antibody

antigen

130

lymphocytosis

An increase in the number of circulating lymphocytes

131

ROOT FOR nitrogenous compounds

ROOT azot/o

132

A clotting disorder caused by destruction of platelets that usually follows a viral illness. Causes petechiae and hemorrhages into the skin and mucous membranes

idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP)

133

Cancerous lesion of the skin and other tissues, seen most often in patients with AIDS

Kaposi sarcoma

134

erythropoietin (EPO)

A hormone produced in the kidneys that stimulates red blood cell production in the bone marrow.

135

A scale that measures the relative acidity or alkalinity of a solution. Represents the amount of hydrogen ion in the solution

pH

136

An often fatal disorder in which multiple clots form in blood vessels

thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP)

137

A localized collection of blood, usually clotted, caused by a break in a blood vessel

hematoma

138

Presence of microorganisms in the blood

septicemia

139

heparin

A substance found throughout the body that inhibits blood coagulation; an anticoagulant

140

ROOT FOR sodium (symbol Na)

ROOT natri

141

plasma

The liquid portion of the blood

142

hemolytic disease of the newborn (HDN)

Disease that results from incompatibility between the blood of a mother and her fetus, usually involving Rh factor. An Rh-negative mother produces antibody to an Rh-positive fetus that, in later pregnancies, will destroy the red cells of an Rh-positive fetus. The problem is usually avoided by treating the mother with antibodies to remove the Rh antigen; erythroblastosis fetalis

143

anticoagulant

An agent that prevents or delays blood coagulation

144

A hormone produced in the kidneys that stimulates red blood cell production in the bone marrow.

erythropoietin (EPO)

145

Separation of particles in a liquid by application of an electrical field; used to separate components of blood.

electrophoresis

146

ROOT FOR immunity, immune system

ROOT immun/o

147

Increase in the number of red cells in the blood; may be normal, such as to compensate for life at high altitudes, or abnormal, such as in cases of pulmonary or cardiac disease

erythrocytosis

148

A procedure in which blood is withdrawn, a portion is separated and retained, and the remainder is returned to the donor.

apheresis

149

ROOT sider/o

ROOT FOR iron

150

ROOT FOR blood clot

ROOT thromb/o

151

Widespread formation of clots in the microscopic vessels; may be followed by bleeding caused by depletion of clotting factors

disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC)

152

coagulation

Blood clotting

153

A skin reaction consisting of round, raised eruptions (wheals) with itching; hives

urticaria

154

Blood clotting

coagulation

155

A form of thalassemia (hereditary anemia) which affects production of the β (beta) hemoglobin chain; thalassemia major

Cooley anemia

156

protease inhibitor

An anti-HIV drug that acts by inhibiting an enzyme the virus needs to multiply

157

purpura

A condition characterized by hemorrhages into the skin, mucous membranes, internal organs, and other tissues (from Greek word meaning “purple”). Thrombocytopenic purpura is caused by a deficiency of platelets

158

Schilling test

Test used to determine absorption of vitamin B12 by measuring excretion of radioactive B12 in the urine. Used to distinguish pernicious from nutritional anemia

159

corpuscle

A small mass or body.

160

pH

A scale that measures the relative acidity or alkalinity of a solution. Represents the amount of hydrogen ion in the solution

161

systemic sclerosis

A diffuse disease of connective tissue that may involve any system causing inflammation, degeneration, and fibrosis. Also called scleroderma because it causes thickening of the skin

162

ELISA

Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. A highly sensitive immunologic test used to diagnose HIV infection, hepatitis, and Lyme disease, among others

163

An exaggerated allergic reaction to a foreign substance. It may lead to death caused by circulatory collapse, and respiratory distress if untreated.

anaphylactic reaction

164

A drug that counteracts the effects of histamine and is used to treat allergic reactions

antihistamine

165

ROOT FOR oxygen (symbol O)

ROOT ox/y

166

platelet

A formed element of the blood that is active in hemostasis; a thrombocyte

167

Philadelphia chromosome (Ph)

An abnormal chromosome found in the cells of most individuals with chronic granulocytic (myelogenous) leukemia

168

Coombs test

A test for detection of antibodies to red blood cells such as appear in cases of autoimmune hemolytic anemias

169

SUFFIX FOR formation, production

SUFFIX -poiesis

170

disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC)

Widespread formation of clots in the microscopic vessels; may be followed by bleeding caused by depletion of clotting factors

171

An increase in the number of circulating lymphocytes

lymphocytosis

172

Western blot assay

A very sensitive test used to detect small amounts of antibodies in the blood

173

The enzyme derived from prothrombin that converts fibrinogen to fibrin

thrombin

174

thrombocyte

A blood platelet

175

The liquid portion of the blood

plasma

176

AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome)

Failure of the immune system caused by infection with HIV (human immunodeficiency virus). The virus infects certain T cells and thus interferes with immunity

177

A condition involving the deposition of an iron-containing pigment (hemosiderin) mainly in the liver and the spleen. The pigment comes from hemoglobin released from disintegrated red blood cells

hemosiderosis

178

ROOT FOR iron (symbol Fe)

ROOT ferr/o, ferr/i

179

thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP)

An often fatal disorder in which multiple clots form in blood vessels

180

serum

The fraction of the plasma that remains after blood coagulation; it is the equivalent of plasma without its clotting factors

181

polycythemia

Any condition in which there is a relative increase in the percent of red blood cells in whole blood. May result from excessive production of red cells because of lack of oxygen, as caused by high altitudes, breathing obstruction, heart failure, or certain forms of poisoning. Apparent polycythemia results from concentration of the blood, as by dehydration

182

A widespread malignant disease of lymph nodes that involves lymphocytes. It differs from Hodgkin disease in that giant Reed-Sternberg cells are absent.

non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL)

183

angioedema

A localized edema with large hives (wheals) similar to urticaria but involving deeper layers of the skin and subcutaneous tissue

184

hemopoietic stem cell

A primitive bone marrow cell that gives rise to all varieties of blood cells

185

A decrease in the number of neutrophils with increased susceptibility to infection. Causes include drugs, irradiation, and infection. May be a side effect of treatment for malignancy

neutropenia

186

immunoglobulin (Ig)

An antibody. Fall into five classes, each abbreviated with a capital letter: IgG, IgM, IgA, IgD, IgE

187

agglutination

The clumping of cells or particles in the presence of specific antibodies

188

eosinophil

A granular leukocyte that stains with acidic dyes; active in allergic reactions and defense against parasites

189

A blood platelet

thrombocyte

190

A granular leukocyte that stains with acidic dyes; active in allergic reactions and defense against parasites

eosinophil

191

basophil

A granular leukocyte that stains with basic dyes; active in allergic reactions

192

erythrocyte

A red blood cell

193

ROOT leuk/o, leukocyt/o

ROOT FOR white blood cell

194

A collection of blood under the skin caused by leakage from small vessels

ecchymosis

195

A substance that causes an allergic response

allergen

196

thrombocytopenia

A deficiency of thrombocytes (platelets) in the blood

197

myelofibrosis

Condition in which bone marrow is replaced with fibrous tissue

198

An acute infectious disease caused by Epstein–Barr virus (EBV). Characterized by fever, weakness, lymphadenopathy, hepatosplenomegaly, and atypical lymphocytes (resembling monocytes)

infectious mononucleosis

199

A count of the T cells that have the CD4 receptors for the AIDS virus (HIV). A count of less than 200/µL of blood signifies severe immunodeficiency.

CD4+ T lymphocyte count

200

A commonly used blood stain

Wright stain

201

Test used to determine absorption of vitamin B12 by measuring excretion of radioactive B12 in the urine. Used to distinguish pernicious from nutritional anemia

Schilling test

202

electrophoresis

Separation of particles in a liquid by application of an electrical field; used to separate components of blood.

203

A formed element of the blood that is active in hemostasis; a thrombocyte

platelet

204

delayed hypersensitivity reaction

An allergic reaction involving T cells that takes at least 12 hours to develop. Examples are various types of contact dermatitis, such as poison ivy or poison oak; the tuberculin reaction (test for TB); and rejections of transplanted tissue

205

hemolysis

The rupture of red blood cells and the release of hemoglobin

206

Anemia caused by failure of the stomach to produce intrinsic factor, a substance needed for the absorption of vitamin B12. This vitamin is required for the formation of erythrocytes.

pernicious anemia

207

idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP)

A clotting disorder caused by destruction of platelets that usually follows a viral illness. Causes petechiae and hemorrhages into the skin and mucous membranes

208

A granular leukocyte that stains with acidic or basic dyes. The most numerous of the white blood cells. A type of phagocyte

neutrophil

209

Any disease of the lymph nodes

lymphadenopathy

210

ROOT FOR white blood cell

ROOT leuk/o, leukocyt/o

211

A condition in which overactive bone marrow produces too many red blood cells. These interfere with circulation and promote thrombosis and hemorrhage. Treated by blood removal. Also called erythremia, Vasquez–Osler disease

polycythemia vera

212

systemic lupus erythematosus

Inflammatory connective tissue disease affecting the skin and multiple organs. Patients are sensitive to light and may have a red butterfly-shaped rash over the nose and cheeks

213

homologous blood

Blood from animals of the same species, such as human blood used for transfusion from one person to another. Blood used for transfusions must be compatible with the blood of the recipient

214

ROOT myel/o

ROOT FOR bone marrow

215

A pigment derived from the breakdown of hemoglobin. It is eliminated by the liver in bile

bilirubin

216

graft-versus-host reaction (GVHR)

An immunologic reaction of transplanted lymphocytes against tissues of the host; a common complication of bone marrow transplantation.

217

ROOT FOR blood

ROOT hem/o, hemat/o

218

hypersensitivity

An immunologic reaction to a substance that is harmless to most people; allergy

219

A hereditary anemia caused by the presence of abnormal hemoglobin. Red blood cells become sickle shaped and interfere with normal blood flow to the tissues. Most common in black populations of West African descent

sickle cell anemia

220

gamma globulin

The fraction of the blood plasma that contains antibodies; given for passive transfer of immunity

221

multiple myeloma

A tumor of the blood-forming tissue in bone marrow

222

An autoimmune disease involving dysfunction of the exocrine glands and affecting secretion of tears, saliva, and other body fluids. Deficiency leads to dry mouth, tooth decay, corneal damage, eye infections, and difficulty in swallowing

Sjögren syndrome

223

The state of being protected against a specific disease

immunity

224

Kaposi sarcoma

Cancerous lesion of the skin and other tissues, seen most often in patients with AIDS

225

splenomegaly

Enlargement of the spleen

226

septicemia

Presence of microorganisms in the blood

227

anaphylactic reaction

An exaggerated allergic reaction to a foreign substance. It may lead to death caused by circulatory collapse, and respiratory distress if untreated.

228

SUFFIX FOR condition of blood

SUFFIX -emia, -hemia

229

immunity

The state of being protected against a specific disease

230

A group of hereditary anemias mostly found in populations of Mediterranean descent (the name comes from the Greek word for “sea”)

thalassemia

231

bilirubin

A pigment derived from the breakdown of hemoglobin. It is eliminated by the liver in bile

232

The virus that causes AIDS

HIV (human immunodeficiency virus)

233

Disease that results from incompatibility between the blood of a mother and her fetus, usually involving Rh factor. An Rh-negative mother produces antibody to an Rh-positive fetus that, in later pregnancies, will destroy the red cells of an Rh-positive fetus. The problem is usually avoided by treating the mother with antibodies to remove the Rh antigen; erythroblastosis fetalis

hemolytic disease of the newborn (HDN)

234

spherocytic anemia

Hereditary anemia in which red blood cells are round instead of disk-shaped and rupture (hemolyze) excessively

235

A protein that appears in the urine of patients with multiple myeloma

Bence Jones protein

236

The clumping of cells or particles in the presence of specific antibodies

agglutination

237

immunosuppression

Depression of the immune response. May be correlated with disease but also may be induced therapeutically to prevent rejection in cases of tissue transplantation

238

sickle cell anemia

A hereditary anemia caused by the presence of abnormal hemoglobin. Red blood cells become sickle shaped and interfere with normal blood flow to the tissues. Most common in black populations of West African descent

239

T cell

A lymphocyte that matures in the thymus gland and attacks foreign cells directly

240

Pinpoint, flat, purplish-red spots caused by bleeding within the skin or mucous membrane (singular: petechia)

petechiae

241

ROOT hem/o, hemat/o

ROOT FOR blood

242

agranulocytes

A white blood cell that does not have visible granules in its cytoplasm.

243

A tumor of the blood-forming tissue in bone marrow

multiple myeloma

244

The stoppage of bleeding

hemostasis

245

A condition in which the immune system produces antibodies against an individual's own tissues

autoimmune disease

246

ROOT ox/y

ROOT FOR oxygen (symbol O)

247

An anti-HIV drug that acts by inhibiting an enzyme the virus needs to multiply

protease inhibitor

248

epinephrine

A powerful stimulant produced by the adrenal gland and sympathetic nervous system. Activates the cardiovascular, respiratory, and other systems needed to meet stress. Used as a drug to treat severe allergic reactions and shock. Also called adrenaline

249

A phagocytic cell derived from a monocyte; usually located within the tissues. Process antigens for T cells

macrophage

250

non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL)

A widespread malignant disease of lymph nodes that involves lymphocytes. It differs from Hodgkin disease in that giant Reed-Sternberg cells are absent.

251

reticulocyte counts

Blood counts of reticulocytes, a type of immature red blood cell; reticulocyte counts are useful in diagnosis to indicate the rate of erythrocyte formation

252

Blood counts of reticulocytes, a type of immature red blood cell; reticulocyte counts are useful in diagnosis to indicate the rate of erythrocyte formation

reticulocyte counts

253

lymphocyte

An agranular leukocyte active in immunity (T cells and B cells); found in both the blood and in lymphoid tissue

254

neutropenia

A decrease in the number of neutrophils with increased susceptibility to infection. Causes include drugs, irradiation, and infection. May be a side effect of treatment for malignancy

255

A group of plasma enzymes that interacts with antibodies

complement

256

Malignant overgrowth of immature white blood cells; may be chronic or acute; may affect bone marrow (myelogenous) or lymphoid tissue (lymphocytic)

leukemia

257

A substance that separates into charged particles (ions) in solution; a salt. Term also applied to ions in body fluids

electrolyte

258

monoclonal antibody

A pure antibody produced in the laboratory; used for diagnosis and treatment

259

Bence Jones protein

A protein that appears in the urine of patients with multiple myeloma

260

cryoprecipitate

A sediment obtained by cooling. The fraction obtained by freezing blood plasma contains clotting factors

261

complement

A group of plasma enzymes that interacts with antibodies

262

fibrinogen

The inactive precursor of fibrin

263

hemosiderosis

A condition involving the deposition of an iron-containing pigment (hemosiderin) mainly in the liver and the spleen. The pigment comes from hemoglobin released from disintegrated red blood cells

264

phagocytosis

The engulfing of foreign material by white blood cells

265

seroconversion

The appearance of antibodies in the serum in response to a disease or an immunization

266

plasma cell

A mature form of a B cell that produces antibodies

267

Giant cells that are characteristic of Hodgkin disease. They usually have two large nuclei and are surrounded by a halo

Reed-Sternberg cells

268

myelodysplastic syndrome

Bone marrow dysfunction resulting in anemia and deficiency of neutrophils and platelets. May develop in time into leukemia; preleukemia

269

An abnormal chromosome found in the cells of most individuals with chronic granulocytic (myelogenous) leukemia

Philadelphia chromosome (Ph)

270

desensitization

Treatment of allergy by small injections of the offending allergen. This causes an increase of antibody to destroy the antigen rapidly on contact

271

The fluid that circulates in the cardiovascular system

blood

272

A condition involving a decrease in the number of granulocytes in the blood; also called granulocytopenia

agranulocytosis

273

Fanconi syndrome

Congenital aplastic anemia that appears between birth and 10 years of age; may be hereditary or caused by damage before birth, as by a virus

274

von Willebrand disease

A hereditary bleeding disease caused by lack of von Willebrand factor, a substance necessary for blood clotting

275

The iron-containing pigment in red blood cells that transports oxygen

hemoglobin (Hb, Hgb)

276

A deficiency of thrombocytes (platelets) in the blood

thrombocytopenia

277

lymphadenopathy

Any disease of the lymph nodes

278

petechiae

Pinpoint, flat, purplish-red spots caused by bleeding within the skin or mucous membrane (singular: petechia)

279

Anemia caused by bone marrow failure resulting in deficient blood cell production, especially of red cells; pancytopenia

aplastic anemia

280

ROOT FOR potassium (symbol K)

ROOT kali

281

Cooley anemia

A form of thalassemia (hereditary anemia) which affects production of the β (beta) hemoglobin chain; thalassemia major

282

The engulfing of foreign material by white blood cells

phagocytosis

283

B cell

A lymphocyte that matures in lymphoid tissue and is active in producing antibodies

284

Blood from animals of the same species, such as human blood used for transfusion from one person to another. Blood used for transfusions must be compatible with the blood of the recipient

homologous blood

285

allergen

A substance that causes an allergic response

286

intrinsic factor

A substance produced in the stomach that aids in the absorption of vitamin B12, necessary for the manufacture of red blood cells. Lack of causes pernicious anemia