Chap 9 Cardiovascular and Lymphatic Flashcards Preview

Cohen Medical Terminology > Chap 9 Cardiovascular and Lymphatic > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chap 9 Cardiovascular and Lymphatic Deck (418):
1

rheumatic heart disease

Damage to heart valves after infection with a type of streptococcus (group A hemolytic streptococcus). The antibodies produced in response to the infection produce valvular scarring, usually involving the mitral valve

2

dissecting aneurysm

An aneurysm in which blood enters the arterial wall and separates the layers. Usually involves the aorta

3

arteriole

A small vessel that carries blood from the arteries into the capillaries

4

Sinus rhythm = one complete cycle P wave QRS T wave U wave

What are the various waves of the sinus rhythm

5

ABBREV for Electrocardiography

ECG

6

hemorrhoid

A varicose vein in the rectum

7

precordium

The anterior region over the heart and the lower part of the thorax

8

stenosis

Constriction or narrowing of an opening

9

atrium

An entrance chamber, one of the two upper receiving chambers of the heart

10

coronary artery bypass graft (CABG)

Surgical creation of a shunt to bypass a blocked coronary artery. The aorta is connected to a point past the obstruction with another vessel or a piece of another vessel, usually the left internal mammary artery or part of the leg's saphenous vein

11

nitroglycerin

A drug used in the treatment of angina pectoris to dilate coronary vessels

12

embolus

A mass carried in the circulation. Usually a blood clot, but also may be air, fat, bacteria, or other solid matter from within or from outside the body

13

dyspnea

Difficult or labored breathing

14

bruit

An abnormal sound heard in auscultation

15

cardiac catheterization

Passage of a catheter into the heart through a vessel to inject a contrast medium for imaging, diagnosing abnormalities, obtaining samples, or measuring pressure

16

murmur

An abnormal heart sound

17

creatine kinase MB (CK-MB)

Enzyme released in increased amounts from cardiac muscle cells following myocardial infarction (MI). Serum assays help diagnose MI and determine the extent of muscle damage

18

functional murmur

Any sound produced as the heart functions normally

19

plaque

With regard to the cardiovascular system, a deposit of fatty material and other substances on a vessel wall that impedes blood flow and may block the vessel.

20

troponin (Tn)

A protein in muscle cells that regulates contraction. Increased serum levels, primarily in the forms TnT and TnI, indicate recent myocardial infarction (MI)

21

ROOT atri/o

ROOT FOR atrium

22

apical pulse

Pulse felt or heard over the apex of the heart. It is measured in the fifth left intercostal space (between the ribs) about 8 to 9 cm from the midline

23

heart

The muscular organ with four chambers that contracts rhythmically to propel blood through vessels to all parts of the body (root: cardi/o)

24

List the vessels from leaving the heart to returning to the heart

Arteries --> arterioles --> Capillaries --> venules --> veins

25

Atria

upper receiving chambers of heart

26

pulmonary circuit

The system of vessels that carries blood from the right side of the heart to the lungs to be oxygenated and then back to the left side of the heart

27

lymphatic system

The system that drains fluid and proteins from the tissues and returns them to the bloodstream. This system also participates in immunity and aids in absorption of fats from the digestive tract

28

intermittent claudication

Pain in a muscle during exercise caused by inadequate blood supply. The pain disappears with rest

29

thrombus

A blood clot that forms within a blood vessel

30

ROOT arter/o, arteri/o

ROOT FOR artery

31

Systole measures blood pressure at this phase of heart beat

This term means blood pressure measured during heart contraction

32

ROOT ventricul/o

ROOT FOR cavity, ventricle

33

AV bundle

A band of fibers that transmits impulses from the atrioventricular (AV) node to the top of the interventricular septum. It divides into the right and left bundle branches, which descend along the two sides of the septum; the bundle of His

34

blood pressure

The force exerted by blood against the wall of a vessel

35

tetralogy of Fallot

A combination of four congenital heart abnormalities: pulmonary artery stenosis, interventricular septal defect, displacement of the aorta to the right, and right ventricular hypertrophy

36

angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor

A drug that lowers blood pressure by blocking the formation in the blood of angiotensin II, a substance that normally acts to increase blood pressure

37

phonocardiography

Electronic recording of heart sounds

38

intraaortic balloon pump (IABP)

A mechanical assist device that consists of an inflatable balloon pump inserted through the femoral artery into the thoracic aorta. It inflates during diastole to improve coronary circulation and deflates before systole to allow blood ejection from the heart

39

ROOT varic/o

ROOT FOR varicose (varix) (pl varices)

40

Doppler echocardiography

An imaging method used to study the rate and pattern of blood flow

41

ROOT thym/o

ROOT FOR thymus

42

heart scan

Imaging of the heart after injection of a radioactive isotope. The PYP (pyrophosphate) scan using technetium-99m (99mTc) is used to test for myocardial infarction because the isotope is taken up by damaged tissue. The MUGA (multigated acquisition) scan gives information on heart function

43

left ventricular assist device (LVAD)

A pump that takes over the function of the left ventricle in delivering blood into the systemic circuit. These devices are used to assist patients awaiting heart transplantation or those who are recovering from heart failure

44

Ventricles

Lower pumping chambers of heart

45

tachycardia

An abnormally rapid heart rate, usually over 100 bpm

46

lipoprotein

A compound of protein with lipid. Lipoproteins are classified according to density as very low density (VLDL), low density (LDL), and high density (HDL). Relatively higher levels of HDLs have been correlated with health of the cardiovascular system

47

polyarteritis nodosa

Potentially fatal collagen disease causing inflammation of small visceral arteries. Symptoms depend on the organ affected

48

electrocardiography (ECG)

Study of the electrical activity of the heart as detected by electrodes (leads) placed on the surface of the body.

49

defibrillation

Use of an electronic device (defibrillator) to stop fibrillation by delivering a brief electric shock to the heart. The shock may be delivered to the surface of the chest, as by an automated external defibrillator (AED), or directly into the heart through wire leads, using an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD)

50

phlebotomist

Technician who specializes in drawing blood

51

another name for stroke

another name for cerebrovascular accident

52

bundle branches

Branches of the AV bundle that divide to the right and left sides of the interventricular septum

53

repolarization

A return of electrical charge to the resting state in nerves or muscles

54

digitalis

A drug that slows and strengthens heart muscle contractions

55

loop diuretic

Drug that increases urine output by inhibiting electrolyte reabsorption in the kidney nephrons (loops)

56

superior vena cava

The large superior vein that brings deoxygenated blood back to the right atrium from the upper body

57

cardiac output

The amount of blood pumped from the right or left ventricle per minute

58

angioplasty

A procedure that reopens a narrowed vessel and restores blood flow. Commonly accomplished by surgically removing plaque, inflating a balloon within the vessel, or installing a device (stent) to keep the vessel open

59

stress test

Evaluation of physical fitness by continuous ECG monitoring during exercise. In a thallium stress test, a radioactive isotope of thallium is administered to trace blood flow through the heart during exercise

60

palpitation

A sensation of abnormally rapid or irregular heartbeat

61

thrombophlebitis

Inflammation of a vein associated with formation of a blood clot

62

epicardium

The thin outermost layer of the heart wall

63

ROOT phleb/o

ROOT FOR vein

64

Peyer patches

Aggregates of lymphoid tissue in the lining of the intestine

65

hypotension

A condition of lower-than-normal blood pressure

66

capillary

A microscopic blood vessel through which materials are exchanged between the blood and the tissues

67

atrioventricular (AV) node

A small mass in the lower septum of the right atrium that passes impulses from the sinoatrial (SA) node toward the ventricles

68

left AV valve

The valve between the left atrium and the left ventricle; the mitral valve or bicuspid valve

69

dyslipidemia

Disorder in serum lipid levels, which is an important factor in development of atherosclerosis. Includes hyperlipidemia (high lipids), hypercholesterolemia (high cholesterol), and hypertriglyceridemia (high triglycerides)

70

fibrillation

Spontaneous, quivering, and ineffectual contraction of muscle fibers, as in the atria or the ventricles

71

ROOT sphygm/o

ROOT FOR pulse

72

ROOT vas/o, vascul/o

ROOT FOR vessel, duct

73

myocardial infarction (MI)

Localized necrosis (death) of cardiac muscle tissue resulting from blockage or narrowing of the coronary artery that supplies that area.

74

ROOT splen/o

ROOT FOR spleen

75

angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB)

A drug that blocks tissue receptors for angiotensin II; angiotensin II receptor antagonist

76

lidocaine

A local anesthetic that is used intravenously to treat cardiac arrhythmias

77

antiarrhythmic agent

A drug that regulates the rate and rhythm of the heartbeat

78

ROOT valv/o, valvul/o

ROOT FOR valve

79

commissurotomy

Surgical incision of a scarred mitral valve to increase the size of the valve opening

80

ventriculography

X-ray study of the ventricles of the heart after introduction of an opaque dye by means of a catheter

81

Pericardium

fibrous sac surrounding the heart

82

hypolipidemic agent

Drug that lowers serum cholesterol

83

Myocardium

thick muscular layer that makes up heart wall

84

venule

A small vessel that carries blood from the capillaries to the veins

85

perfusion

The passage of fluid, such as blood, through an organ or tissue

86

thromboangiitis obliterans

Inflammation and thrombus formation resulting in occlusion of small vessels, especially in the legs. Most common in young men and correlated with heavy smoking. Thrombotic occlusion of leg vessels may lead to gangrene of the feet. Patients show a hypersensitivity to tobacco. Also called Buerger disease

87

ROOT hem/o

ROOT FOR blood

88

artificial pacemaker

A battery-operated device that generates electrical impulses to regulate the beating of the heart. It may be external or implanted, may be designed to respond to need, and may have the capacity to prevent tachycardia

89

flutter

Very rapid (200 to 300 bpm) but regular contractions, as in the atria or the ventricles

90

lymph

The thin plasmalike fluid that drains from the tissues and is transported in lymphatic vessels

91

cardioversion

Correction of an abnormal cardiac rhythm. May be accomplished pharmacologically, with antiarrhythmic drugs, or by application of electric current

92

vegetation

Irregular outgrowths of bacteria on the heart valves; associated with rheumatic fever

93

mitral valve prolapse

Movement of the cusps of the mitral valve into the left atrium when the ventricles contract

94

Endocardium

inside lining of heart

95

diuretic

Drug that eliminates fluid by increasing the kidneys’ output of urine. Lowered blood volume decreases the heart’s workload

96

phlebitis

Inflammation of a vein

97

diastole

The relaxation phase of the heartbeat cycle

98

septal defect

An opening in the septum between the atria or ventricles; a common cause is persistence of the foramen ovale (for-Ā-men ō-VAL-ē), an opening between the atria that bypasses the lungs in fetal circulation

99

Epicardium

outside thin lining of heart

100

sinus rhythm

Normal heart rhythm

101

subacute bacterial endocarditis (SBE

Growth of bacteria in a heart or valves previously damaged by rheumatic fever

102

cardiovascular system

The part of the circulatory system that consists of the heart and the blood vessels

103

depolarization

A change in electrical charge from the resting state in nerves or muscles

104

mitral valve

The valve between the left atrium and the left ventricle; the left AV valve or bicuspid valve

105

Wolff–Parkinson–White syndrome (WPW)

A cardiac arrhythmia consisting of tachycardia and a premature ventricular beat caused by an alternative conduction pathway

106

thoracic duct

The lymphatic duct that drains fluid from the upper left side of the body and all of the lower body/ left lymphatic duct

107

calcium-channel blocker

Drug that controls the rate and force of heart contraction by regulating calcium entrance into the cells

108

ectopic beat

A heartbeat that originates from some part of the heart other than the SA node

109

cerebrovascular accident (CVA)

Sudden damage to the brain resulting from reduction of blood flow. Causes include atherosclerosis, embolism, thrombosis, or hemorrhage from a ruptured aneurysm; commonly called stroke

110

regurgitation

A backward flow, such as the backflow of blood through a defective valve

111

apex

The point of a cone-shaped structure. In the heart, this is formed by the left ventricle and is pointed toward the inferior and left

112

atherectomy

Removal of atheromatous plaque from the lining of a vessel. May be done by open surgery or through the lumen of the vessel

113

C-reactive protein

Protein produced during systemic inflammation, which may contribute to atherosclerosis

114

embolism

Obstruction of a blood vessel by a blood clot or other matter carried in the circulation

115

varicose vein

A twisted and swollen vein resulting from breakdown of the valves, pooling of blood, and chronic dilatation of the vessel

116

computed tomography angiography (CTA)

Method for imaging the interior of arteries using computed tomography; uses less dye and is less invasive than standard angiography

117

arteriosclerosis

Hardening of the arteries, with loss of capacity and loss of elasticity, as from fatty deposits (plaque), deposit of calcium salts, or formation of scar tissue

118

pulmonary artery

The vessel that carries blood from the right side of the heart to the lungs

119

plethysmography

Measurement of changes in the size of a part based on the amount of blood contained in or passing through it. Impedance plethysmography measures changes in electrical resistance and is used in the diagnosis of deep vein thrombosis

120

cyanosis

Bluish discoloration of the skin caused by lack of oxygen

121

vein

A vessel that carries blood back to the heart. All except the pulmonary and umbilical veins carry blood low in oxygen

122

deep vein thrombosis (DVT)

Thrombophlebitis involving the deep veins

123

tonsils

Small masses of lymphoid tissue located in regions of the throat (pharynx)

124

ROOT angi/o

ROOT FOR vessel

125

triglycerides

Simple fats that circulate in the bloodstream

126

inferior vena cava

The large inferior vein that brings blood back to the right atrium of the heart from the lower body

127

edema

Swelling of body tissues caused by the presence of excess fluid

128

septum

A wall dividing two cavities, such as the chambers of the heart

129

pitting edema

Edema that retains the impression of a finger pressed firmly into the skin

130

ventricle

A small cavity. One of the two lower pumping chambers of the heart

131

right lymphatic duct

The lymphatic duct that drains fluid from the upper right side of the body

132

thrombosis

Development of a blood clot within a vessel

133

shock

Circulatory failure resulting in an inadequate supply of blood to the tissues.

134

lymph node

A small mass of lymphoid tissue along the path of a lymphatic vessel that filters lymph

135

diaphoresis

Profuse sweating

136

transesophageal echocardiography (TEE)

Use of an ultrasound transducer placed endoscopically into the esophagus to obtain images of the heart

137

heart rate

The number of times the heart contracts per minute; recorded as beats per minute (BPM)

138

ROOT lymphaden/o

ROOT FOR lymph node

139

clubbing

Enlargement of the ends of the fingers and toes caused by growth of the soft tissue around the nails. Seen in a variety of diseases in which there is poor peripheral circulation.

140

spleen

A large reddish-brown organ in the upper left region of the abdomen. It filters blood and destroys old red blood cells

141

valve

A structure that keeps fluid flowing in a forward direction

142

angina pectoris

A feeling of constriction around the heart or pain that may radiate to the left arm or shoulder, usually brought on by exertion; caused by insufficient blood supply to the heart

143

Diastole measures blood pressure at this phase of heart beat

This term means blood pressure measured during heart relaxation

144

endocardium

The thin membrane that lines the chambers of the heart and covers the valves

145

cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR)

Restoration of cardiac output and pulmonary ventilation after cardiac arrest using artificial respiration and chest compression or cardiac massage

146

coronary angiography

Radiographic study of the coronary arteries after introduction of an opaque dye by means of a catheter

147

pulmonary valve

The valve at the entrance to the pulmonary artery

148

Raynaud disease

A disorder characterized by abnormal constriction of peripheral vessels in the arms and legs on exposure to cold

149

systemic circuit

The system of vessels that carries oxygenated blood from the left side of the heart to all tissues except the lungs and returns deoxygenated blood to the right side of the heart

150

ROOT cardi/o

ROOT FOR heart

151

sinus rhythm

A normal heart rhythm originating from the sinoatrial (SA) node

152

ROOT aort/o

ROOT FOR aorta

153

aortic valve

The valve at the entrance to the aorta

154

what is the singular of Atria

What is the plural of Atrium

155

stent

A small metal device in the shape of a coil or slotted tube that is placed inside an artery to keep the vessel open after balloon angioplasty

156

syncope

A temporary loss of consciousness caused by inadequate blood flow to the brain; fainting

157

patent ductus arteriosus

Persistence of the ductus arteriosus after birth. The ductus arteriosus is a vessel that connects the pulmonary artery to the descending aorta in the fetus to bypass the lungs

158

streptokinase (SK)

An enzyme used to dissolve blood clots

159

systole

The contraction phase of the heartbeat cycle

160

pericardium

The fibrous sac that surrounds the heart

161

extrasystole

Premature contraction of the heart that occurs separately from the normal beat and originates from a part of the heart other than the SA node

162

ROOT lymph/o

ROOT FOR lymph

163

vasodilator

A drug that widens blood vessels and improves blood flow

164

Korotkoff sounds

Arterial sounds heard with a stethoscope during determination of blood pressure with a cuff

165

coarctation of the aorta

Localized narrowing on the aorta with restriction of blood flow

166

homocysteine

An amino acid in the blood that at higher-than-normal levels is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease

167

aneurysm

A localized abnormal dilation of a blood vessel, usually an artery, caused by weakness of the vessel wall; may eventually burst

168

arrhythmia

Any abnormality in the rate or rhythm of the heartbeat

169

Holter monitor

A portable device that can record up to 24 hours of an individual's ECG readings during normal activity

170

pulse pressure

The difference between systolic and diastolic pressure

171

tissue plasminogen activator (tPA)

A drug used to dissolve blood clots. It activates production of a substance (plasmin) in the blood that normally dissolves clots

172

cardiac tamponade

Pathologic accumulation of fluid in the pericardial sac. May result from pericarditis or injury to the heart or great vessels.

173

ROOT arteriol/o

ROOT FOR arteriole

174

heart failure

A condition caused by the inability of the heart to maintain adequate circulation of blood

175

hypertension

A condition of higher-than-normal blood pressure.

176

ischemia

Local deficiency of blood supply caused by obstruction of the circulation

177

aorta

The largest artery. It receives blood from the left ventricle and branches to all parts of the body

178

pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP)

Pressure measured by a catheter in a branch of the pulmonary artery. It is an indirect measure of pressure in the left atrium

179

infarct

An area of localized necrosis (death) of tissue resulting from a blockage or a narrowing of the artery that supplies the area

180

Contractions are stimulated by electrical impulse Sinoatrial node (SA node) Atrioventricular node (AV node) AV bundle Bundle branches Purkinje fibers

electrical path of heart

181

heart sounds

Sounds produced as the heart functions. The two loudest sounds are produced by alternate closing of the valves and are designated S1 and S2

182

thymus gland

A gland in the upper part of the chest beneath the sternum. It functions in immunity

183

stasis

Stoppage of normal flow, as of blood or urine.

184

right AV valve

The valve between the right atrium and right ventricle; the tricuspid valve

185

central venous pressure (CVP

Pressure in the superior vena cava

186

pulse

The wave of increased pressure produced in the vessels each time the ventricles contract

187

bradycardia

A slow heart rate of less than 60 bpm

188

sphygmomanometer

An instrument for determining arterial blood pressure; blood pressure apparatus or cuff

189

Describe the path of blood through the heart

Right atrium receives blood from body Enters right ventricle and is pumped to lungs Oxygenated blood returns to left atrium Enters left ventricle and is pumped to rest of body

190

occlusive vascular disease

Arteriosclerotic disease of the vessels, usually peripheral vessels

191

beta-adrenergic blocking agent

Drug that decreases the rate and strength of heart contractions; beta-blocker

192

echocardiography (ECG)

A noninvasive method that uses ultrasound to visualize internal cardiac structures

193

Purkinje fibers

The terminal fibers of the conducting system of the heart. They carry impulses through the walls of the ventricles.

194

stroke volume

The amount of blood ejected by the left ventricle with each beat

195

artery

A vessel that carries blood away from the heart. All except the pulmonary and umbilical arteries carry oxygenated blood

196

heart block

An interference in the conduction system of the heart resulting in arrhythmia

197

embolectomy

Surgical removal of an embolus

198

Valsalva maneuver

Bearing down, as in childbirth or defecation, by attempting to exhale forcefully with the nose and throat closed. This action has an effect on the cardiovascular system

199

statins

Drugs that act to lower lipids in the blood. The drug names end with -statin, such as lovastatin, pravastatin, atorvastatin.

200

sinoatrial (SA) node

A small mass in the upper part of the right atrium that initiates the impulse for each heartbeat; the pacemaker

201

atherosclerosis

The development of fatty, fibrous patches (plaques) in the lining of arteries, causing narrowing of the lumen and hardening of the vessel wall. The most common form of arteriosclerosis (hardening of the arteries).

202

cineangiocardiography

The photographic recording of fluoroscopic images of the heart and large vessels using motion picture techniques

203

percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA)

Dilatation of a sclerotic blood vessel by means of a balloon catheter inserted into the vessel and then inflated to flatten plaque against the artery wall

204

pulmonary veins

The vessels that carry blood from the lungs to the left side of the heart

205

ROOT ven/o, ven/i

ROOT FOR vein

206

appendix

A small, fingerlike mass of lymphoid tissue attached to the first part of the large intestine

207

Swan–Ganz catheter

A cardiac catheter with a balloon at the tip that is used to measure pulmonary arterial pressure. It is flow-guided through a vein into the right side of the heart and then into the pulmonary artery

208

occlusion

A closing off or obstruction, as of a vessel

209

vessel

A tube or duct to transport fluid

210

Damage to heart valves after infection with a type of streptococcus (group A hemolytic streptococcus). The antibodies produced in response to the infection produce valvular scarring, usually involving the mitral valve

rheumatic heart disease

211

An aneurysm in which blood enters the arterial wall and separates the layers. Usually involves the aorta

dissecting aneurysm

212

A small vessel that carries blood from the arteries into the capillaries

arteriole

213

What are the various waves of the sinus rhythm

Sinus rhythm = one complete cycle P wave QRS T wave U wave

214

ECG

ABBREV for Electrocardiography

215

A varicose vein in the rectum

hemorrhoid

216

The anterior region over the heart and the lower part of the thorax

precordium

217

Constriction or narrowing of an opening

stenosis

218

An entrance chamber, one of the two upper receiving chambers of the heart

atrium

219

Surgical creation of a shunt to bypass a blocked coronary artery. The aorta is connected to a point past the obstruction with another vessel or a piece of another vessel, usually the left internal mammary artery or part of the leg's saphenous vein

coronary artery bypass graft (CABG)

220

A drug used in the treatment of angina pectoris to dilate coronary vessels

nitroglycerin

221

A mass carried in the circulation. Usually a blood clot, but also may be air, fat, bacteria, or other solid matter from within or from outside the body

embolus

222

Difficult or labored breathing

dyspnea

223

An abnormal sound heard in auscultation

bruit

224

Passage of a catheter into the heart through a vessel to inject a contrast medium for imaging, diagnosing abnormalities, obtaining samples, or measuring pressure

cardiac catheterization

225

An abnormal heart sound

murmur

226

Enzyme released in increased amounts from cardiac muscle cells following myocardial infarction (MI). Serum assays help diagnose MI and determine the extent of muscle damage

creatine kinase MB (CK-MB)

227

Any sound produced as the heart functions normally

functional murmur

228

With regard to the cardiovascular system, a deposit of fatty material and other substances on a vessel wall that impedes blood flow and may block the vessel.

plaque

229

A protein in muscle cells that regulates contraction. Increased serum levels, primarily in the forms TnT and TnI, indicate recent myocardial infarction (MI)

troponin (Tn)

230

ROOT FOR atrium

ROOT atri/o

231

Pulse felt or heard over the apex of the heart. It is measured in the fifth left intercostal space (between the ribs) about 8 to 9 cm from the midline

apical pulse

232

The muscular organ with four chambers that contracts rhythmically to propel blood through vessels to all parts of the body (root: cardi/o)

heart

233

Arteries --> arterioles --> Capillaries --> venules --> veins

List the vessels from leaving the heart to returning to the heart

234

upper receiving chambers of heart

Atria

235

The system of vessels that carries blood from the right side of the heart to the lungs to be oxygenated and then back to the left side of the heart

pulmonary circuit

236

The system that drains fluid and proteins from the tissues and returns them to the bloodstream. This system also participates in immunity and aids in absorption of fats from the digestive tract

lymphatic system

237

Pain in a muscle during exercise caused by inadequate blood supply. The pain disappears with rest

intermittent claudication

238

A blood clot that forms within a blood vessel

thrombus

239

ROOT FOR artery

ROOT arter/o, arteri/o

240

This term means blood pressure measured during heart contraction

Systole measures blood pressure at this phase of heart beat

241

ROOT FOR cavity, ventricle

ROOT ventricul/o

242

A band of fibers that transmits impulses from the atrioventricular (AV) node to the top of the interventricular septum. It divides into the right and left bundle branches, which descend along the two sides of the septum; the bundle of His

AV bundle

243

The force exerted by blood against the wall of a vessel

blood pressure

244

A combination of four congenital heart abnormalities: pulmonary artery stenosis, interventricular septal defect, displacement of the aorta to the right, and right ventricular hypertrophy

tetralogy of Fallot

245

A drug that lowers blood pressure by blocking the formation in the blood of angiotensin II, a substance that normally acts to increase blood pressure

angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor

246

Electronic recording of heart sounds

phonocardiography

247

A mechanical assist device that consists of an inflatable balloon pump inserted through the femoral artery into the thoracic aorta. It inflates during diastole to improve coronary circulation and deflates before systole to allow blood ejection from the heart

intraaortic balloon pump (IABP)

248

ROOT FOR varicose (varix) (pl varices)

ROOT varic/o

249

An imaging method used to study the rate and pattern of blood flow

Doppler echocardiography

250

ROOT FOR thymus

ROOT thym/o

251

Imaging of the heart after injection of a radioactive isotope. The PYP (pyrophosphate) scan using technetium-99m (99mTc) is used to test for myocardial infarction because the isotope is taken up by damaged tissue. The MUGA (multigated acquisition) scan gives information on heart function

heart scan

252

A pump that takes over the function of the left ventricle in delivering blood into the systemic circuit. These devices are used to assist patients awaiting heart transplantation or those who are recovering from heart failure

left ventricular assist device (LVAD)

253

Lower pumping chambers of heart

Ventricles

254

An abnormally rapid heart rate, usually over 100 bpm

tachycardia

255

A compound of protein with lipid. Lipoproteins are classified according to density as very low density (VLDL), low density (LDL), and high density (HDL). Relatively higher levels of HDLs have been correlated with health of the cardiovascular system

lipoprotein

256

Potentially fatal collagen disease causing inflammation of small visceral arteries. Symptoms depend on the organ affected

polyarteritis nodosa

257

Study of the electrical activity of the heart as detected by electrodes (leads) placed on the surface of the body.

electrocardiography (ECG)

258

Use of an electronic device (defibrillator) to stop fibrillation by delivering a brief electric shock to the heart. The shock may be delivered to the surface of the chest, as by an automated external defibrillator (AED), or directly into the heart through wire leads, using an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD)

defibrillation

259

Technician who specializes in drawing blood

phlebotomist

260

another name for cerebrovascular accident

another name for stroke

261

Branches of the AV bundle that divide to the right and left sides of the interventricular septum

bundle branches

262

A return of electrical charge to the resting state in nerves or muscles

repolarization

263

A drug that slows and strengthens heart muscle contractions

digitalis

264

Drug that increases urine output by inhibiting electrolyte reabsorption in the kidney nephrons (loops)

loop diuretic

265

The large superior vein that brings deoxygenated blood back to the right atrium from the upper body

superior vena cava

266

The amount of blood pumped from the right or left ventricle per minute

cardiac output

267

A procedure that reopens a narrowed vessel and restores blood flow. Commonly accomplished by surgically removing plaque, inflating a balloon within the vessel, or installing a device (stent) to keep the vessel open

angioplasty

268

Evaluation of physical fitness by continuous ECG monitoring during exercise. In a thallium stress test, a radioactive isotope of thallium is administered to trace blood flow through the heart during exercise

stress test

269

A sensation of abnormally rapid or irregular heartbeat

palpitation

270

Inflammation of a vein associated with formation of a blood clot

thrombophlebitis

271

The thin outermost layer of the heart wall

epicardium

272

ROOT FOR vein

ROOT phleb/o

273

Aggregates of lymphoid tissue in the lining of the intestine

Peyer patches

274

A condition of lower-than-normal blood pressure

hypotension

275

A microscopic blood vessel through which materials are exchanged between the blood and the tissues

capillary

276

A small mass in the lower septum of the right atrium that passes impulses from the sinoatrial (SA) node toward the ventricles

atrioventricular (AV) node

277

The valve between the left atrium and the left ventricle; the mitral valve or bicuspid valve

left AV valve

278

Disorder in serum lipid levels, which is an important factor in development of atherosclerosis. Includes hyperlipidemia (high lipids), hypercholesterolemia (high cholesterol), and hypertriglyceridemia (high triglycerides)

dyslipidemia

279

Spontaneous, quivering, and ineffectual contraction of muscle fibers, as in the atria or the ventricles

fibrillation

280

ROOT FOR pulse

ROOT sphygm/o

281

ROOT FOR vessel, duct

ROOT vas/o, vascul/o

282

Localized necrosis (death) of cardiac muscle tissue resulting from blockage or narrowing of the coronary artery that supplies that area.

myocardial infarction (MI)

283

ROOT FOR spleen

ROOT splen/o

284

A drug that blocks tissue receptors for angiotensin II; angiotensin II receptor antagonist

angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB)

285

A local anesthetic that is used intravenously to treat cardiac arrhythmias

lidocaine

286

A drug that regulates the rate and rhythm of the heartbeat

antiarrhythmic agent

287

ROOT FOR valve

ROOT valv/o, valvul/o

288

Surgical incision of a scarred mitral valve to increase the size of the valve opening

commissurotomy

289

X-ray study of the ventricles of the heart after introduction of an opaque dye by means of a catheter

ventriculography

290

fibrous sac surrounding the heart

Pericardium

291

Drug that lowers serum cholesterol

hypolipidemic agent

292

thick muscular layer that makes up heart wall

Myocardium

293

A small vessel that carries blood from the capillaries to the veins

venule

294

The passage of fluid, such as blood, through an organ or tissue

perfusion

295

Inflammation and thrombus formation resulting in occlusion of small vessels, especially in the legs. Most common in young men and correlated with heavy smoking. Thrombotic occlusion of leg vessels may lead to gangrene of the feet. Patients show a hypersensitivity to tobacco. Also called Buerger disease

thromboangiitis obliterans

296

ROOT FOR blood

ROOT hem/o

297

A battery-operated device that generates electrical impulses to regulate the beating of the heart. It may be external or implanted, may be designed to respond to need, and may have the capacity to prevent tachycardia

artificial pacemaker

298

Very rapid (200 to 300 bpm) but regular contractions, as in the atria or the ventricles

flutter

299

The thin plasmalike fluid that drains from the tissues and is transported in lymphatic vessels

lymph

300

Correction of an abnormal cardiac rhythm. May be accomplished pharmacologically, with antiarrhythmic drugs, or by application of electric current

cardioversion

301

Irregular outgrowths of bacteria on the heart valves; associated with rheumatic fever

vegetation

302

Movement of the cusps of the mitral valve into the left atrium when the ventricles contract

mitral valve prolapse

303

inside lining of heart

Endocardium

304

Drug that eliminates fluid by increasing the kidneys’ output of urine. Lowered blood volume decreases the heart’s workload

diuretic

305

Inflammation of a vein

phlebitis

306

The relaxation phase of the heartbeat cycle

diastole

307

An opening in the septum between the atria or ventricles; a common cause is persistence of the foramen ovale (for-Ā-men ō-VAL-ē), an opening between the atria that bypasses the lungs in fetal circulation

septal defect

308

outside thin lining of heart

Epicardium

309

Normal heart rhythm

sinus rhythm

310

Growth of bacteria in a heart or valves previously damaged by rheumatic fever

subacute bacterial endocarditis (SBE

311

The part of the circulatory system that consists of the heart and the blood vessels

cardiovascular system

312

A change in electrical charge from the resting state in nerves or muscles

depolarization

313

The valve between the left atrium and the left ventricle; the left AV valve or bicuspid valve

mitral valve

314

A cardiac arrhythmia consisting of tachycardia and a premature ventricular beat caused by an alternative conduction pathway

Wolff–Parkinson–White syndrome (WPW)

315

The lymphatic duct that drains fluid from the upper left side of the body and all of the lower body/ left lymphatic duct

thoracic duct

316

Drug that controls the rate and force of heart contraction by regulating calcium entrance into the cells

calcium-channel blocker

317

A heartbeat that originates from some part of the heart other than the SA node

ectopic beat

318

Sudden damage to the brain resulting from reduction of blood flow. Causes include atherosclerosis, embolism, thrombosis, or hemorrhage from a ruptured aneurysm; commonly called stroke

cerebrovascular accident (CVA)

319

A backward flow, such as the backflow of blood through a defective valve

regurgitation

320

The point of a cone-shaped structure. In the heart, this is formed by the left ventricle and is pointed toward the inferior and left

apex

321

Removal of atheromatous plaque from the lining of a vessel. May be done by open surgery or through the lumen of the vessel

atherectomy

322

Protein produced during systemic inflammation, which may contribute to atherosclerosis

C-reactive protein

323

Obstruction of a blood vessel by a blood clot or other matter carried in the circulation

embolism

324

A twisted and swollen vein resulting from breakdown of the valves, pooling of blood, and chronic dilatation of the vessel

varicose vein

325

Method for imaging the interior of arteries using computed tomography; uses less dye and is less invasive than standard angiography

computed tomography angiography (CTA)

326

Hardening of the arteries, with loss of capacity and loss of elasticity, as from fatty deposits (plaque), deposit of calcium salts, or formation of scar tissue

arteriosclerosis

327

The vessel that carries blood from the right side of the heart to the lungs

pulmonary artery

328

Measurement of changes in the size of a part based on the amount of blood contained in or passing through it. Impedance plethysmography measures changes in electrical resistance and is used in the diagnosis of deep vein thrombosis

plethysmography

329

Bluish discoloration of the skin caused by lack of oxygen

cyanosis

330

A vessel that carries blood back to the heart. All except the pulmonary and umbilical veins carry blood low in oxygen

vein

331

Thrombophlebitis involving the deep veins

deep vein thrombosis (DVT)

332

Small masses of lymphoid tissue located in regions of the throat (pharynx)

tonsils

333

ROOT FOR vessel

ROOT angi/o

334

Simple fats that circulate in the bloodstream

triglycerides

335

The large inferior vein that brings blood back to the right atrium of the heart from the lower body

inferior vena cava

336

Swelling of body tissues caused by the presence of excess fluid

edema

337

A wall dividing two cavities, such as the chambers of the heart

septum

338

Edema that retains the impression of a finger pressed firmly into the skin

pitting edema

339

A small cavity. One of the two lower pumping chambers of the heart

ventricle

340

The lymphatic duct that drains fluid from the upper right side of the body

right lymphatic duct

341

Development of a blood clot within a vessel

thrombosis

342

Circulatory failure resulting in an inadequate supply of blood to the tissues.

shock

343

A small mass of lymphoid tissue along the path of a lymphatic vessel that filters lymph

lymph node

344

Profuse sweating

diaphoresis

345

Use of an ultrasound transducer placed endoscopically into the esophagus to obtain images of the heart

transesophageal echocardiography (TEE)

346

The number of times the heart contracts per minute; recorded as beats per minute (BPM)

heart rate

347

ROOT FOR lymph node

ROOT lymphaden/o

348

Enlargement of the ends of the fingers and toes caused by growth of the soft tissue around the nails. Seen in a variety of diseases in which there is poor peripheral circulation.

clubbing

349

A large reddish-brown organ in the upper left region of the abdomen. It filters blood and destroys old red blood cells

spleen

350

A structure that keeps fluid flowing in a forward direction

valve

351

A feeling of constriction around the heart or pain that may radiate to the left arm or shoulder, usually brought on by exertion; caused by insufficient blood supply to the heart

angina pectoris

352

This term means blood pressure measured during heart relaxation

Diastole measures blood pressure at this phase of heart beat

353

The thin membrane that lines the chambers of the heart and covers the valves

endocardium

354

Restoration of cardiac output and pulmonary ventilation after cardiac arrest using artificial respiration and chest compression or cardiac massage

cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR)

355

Radiographic study of the coronary arteries after introduction of an opaque dye by means of a catheter

coronary angiography

356

The valve at the entrance to the pulmonary artery

pulmonary valve

357

A disorder characterized by abnormal constriction of peripheral vessels in the arms and legs on exposure to cold

Raynaud disease

358

The system of vessels that carries oxygenated blood from the left side of the heart to all tissues except the lungs and returns deoxygenated blood to the right side of the heart

systemic circuit

359

ROOT FOR heart

ROOT cardi/o

360

A normal heart rhythm originating from the sinoatrial (SA) node

sinus rhythm

361

ROOT FOR aorta

ROOT aort/o

362

The valve at the entrance to the aorta

aortic valve

363

What is the plural of Atrium

what is the singular of Atria

364

A small metal device in the shape of a coil or slotted tube that is placed inside an artery to keep the vessel open after balloon angioplasty

stent

365

A temporary loss of consciousness caused by inadequate blood flow to the brain; fainting

syncope

366

Persistence of the ductus arteriosus after birth. The ductus arteriosus is a vessel that connects the pulmonary artery to the descending aorta in the fetus to bypass the lungs

patent ductus arteriosus

367

An enzyme used to dissolve blood clots

streptokinase (SK)

368

The contraction phase of the heartbeat cycle

systole

369

The fibrous sac that surrounds the heart

pericardium

370

Premature contraction of the heart that occurs separately from the normal beat and originates from a part of the heart other than the SA node

extrasystole

371

ROOT FOR lymph

ROOT lymph/o

372

A drug that widens blood vessels and improves blood flow

vasodilator

373

Arterial sounds heard with a stethoscope during determination of blood pressure with a cuff

Korotkoff sounds

374

Localized narrowing on the aorta with restriction of blood flow

coarctation of the aorta

375

An amino acid in the blood that at higher-than-normal levels is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease

homocysteine

376

A localized abnormal dilation of a blood vessel, usually an artery, caused by weakness of the vessel wall; may eventually burst

aneurysm

377

Any abnormality in the rate or rhythm of the heartbeat

arrhythmia

378

A portable device that can record up to 24 hours of an individual's ECG readings during normal activity

Holter monitor

379

The difference between systolic and diastolic pressure

pulse pressure

380

A drug used to dissolve blood clots. It activates production of a substance (plasmin) in the blood that normally dissolves clots

tissue plasminogen activator (tPA)

381

Pathologic accumulation of fluid in the pericardial sac. May result from pericarditis or injury to the heart or great vessels.

cardiac tamponade

382

ROOT FOR arteriole

ROOT arteriol/o

383

A condition caused by the inability of the heart to maintain adequate circulation of blood

heart failure

384

A condition of higher-than-normal blood pressure.

hypertension

385

Local deficiency of blood supply caused by obstruction of the circulation

ischemia

386

The largest artery. It receives blood from the left ventricle and branches to all parts of the body

aorta

387

Pressure measured by a catheter in a branch of the pulmonary artery. It is an indirect measure of pressure in the left atrium

pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP)

388

An area of localized necrosis (death) of tissue resulting from a blockage or a narrowing of the artery that supplies the area

infarct

389

electrical path of heart

Contractions are stimulated by electrical impulse Sinoatrial node (SA node) Atrioventricular node (AV node) AV bundle Bundle branches Purkinje fibers

390

Sounds produced as the heart functions. The two loudest sounds are produced by alternate closing of the valves and are designated S1 and S2

heart sounds

391

A gland in the upper part of the chest beneath the sternum. It functions in immunity

thymus gland

392

Stoppage of normal flow, as of blood or urine.

stasis

393

The valve between the right atrium and right ventricle; the tricuspid valve

right AV valve

394

Pressure in the superior vena cava

central venous pressure (CVP

395

The wave of increased pressure produced in the vessels each time the ventricles contract

pulse

396

A slow heart rate of less than 60 bpm

bradycardia

397

An instrument for determining arterial blood pressure; blood pressure apparatus or cuff

sphygmomanometer

398

Right atrium receives blood from body Enters right ventricle and is pumped to lungs Oxygenated blood returns to left atrium Enters left ventricle and is pumped to rest of body

Describe the path of blood through the heart

399

Arteriosclerotic disease of the vessels, usually peripheral vessels

occlusive vascular disease

400

Drug that decreases the rate and strength of heart contractions; beta-blocker

beta-adrenergic blocking agent

401

A noninvasive method that uses ultrasound to visualize internal cardiac structures

echocardiography (ECG)

402

The terminal fibers of the conducting system of the heart. They carry impulses through the walls of the ventricles.

Purkinje fibers

403

The amount of blood ejected by the left ventricle with each beat

stroke volume

404

A vessel that carries blood away from the heart. All except the pulmonary and umbilical arteries carry oxygenated blood

artery

405

An interference in the conduction system of the heart resulting in arrhythmia

heart block

406

Surgical removal of an embolus

embolectomy

407

Bearing down, as in childbirth or defecation, by attempting to exhale forcefully with the nose and throat closed. This action has an effect on the cardiovascular system

Valsalva maneuver

408

Drugs that act to lower lipids in the blood. The drug names end with -statin, such as lovastatin, pravastatin, atorvastatin.

statins

409

A small mass in the upper part of the right atrium that initiates the impulse for each heartbeat; the pacemaker

sinoatrial (SA) node

410

The development of fatty, fibrous patches (plaques) in the lining of arteries, causing narrowing of the lumen and hardening of the vessel wall. The most common form of arteriosclerosis (hardening of the arteries).

atherosclerosis

411

The photographic recording of fluoroscopic images of the heart and large vessels using motion picture techniques

cineangiocardiography

412

Dilatation of a sclerotic blood vessel by means of a balloon catheter inserted into the vessel and then inflated to flatten plaque against the artery wall

percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA)

413

The vessels that carry blood from the lungs to the left side of the heart

pulmonary veins

414

ROOT FOR vein

ROOT ven/o, ven/i

415

A small, fingerlike mass of lymphoid tissue attached to the first part of the large intestine

appendix

416

A cardiac catheter with a balloon at the tip that is used to measure pulmonary arterial pressure. It is flow-guided through a vein into the right side of the heart and then into the pulmonary artery

Swan–Ganz catheter

417

A closing off or obstruction, as of a vessel

occlusion

418

A tube or duct to transport fluid

vessel