Chap 6 Disease Flashcards Preview

Cohen Medical Terminology > Chap 6 Disease > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chap 6 Disease Deck (117):
1

ROOT
alg/o, algi/o, algesi/o

pain

2

ROOT
carcin/o

cancer, carcinoma

3

ROOT
cyst/o, cyst/i

filled sac or pouch, cyst, bladder

4

ROOT
lith

calculus, stone

5

ROOT
onc/o

tumor

6

ROOT
path/o

disease

7

ROOT
py/o

pus

8

ROOT
pyr/o, pyret/o

fever, fire

9

ROOT
scler/o

hard

10

ROOT
tox/o, toxic/o

poison

11

What causes infectious disease?

Caused by microorganisms: parasites called pathogens

12

What causes degenerative disease?

Caused by wear and tear, aging or trauma

13

What causes neoplasia?

Abnormal, uncontrolled growth of tissue

14

What are the 8 classes of disease?

Infectious
Degenerative
Neoplasia
Immune disorders
Metabolic disorders
Malnutrition
Hormonal disorders
Mental and emotion disorders

15

PREFIX
brady-

slow

16

PREFIX
dys-

abnormal, painful, difficult

17

PREFIX
mal-

bad, por

18

PREFIX
pachy-

thick

19

PREFIX
tachy-

rapid

20

PREFIX
xero-

dry

21

SUFFIX
-algia,
-algesia

pain

22

SUFFIX
-cele

hernia
localized dilation

23

SUFFIX
-clasis,
-clasia

breaking

24

SUFFIX
-itis

inflammation

25

SUFFIX
-megaly

enlargement

26

SUFFIX
-dynia

pain

27

SUFFIX
-oma (plural -omas, omata)

tumor

28

SUFFUX
-pathy

nephropathy

29

SUFFIX
-rhage,
-rhagia

bursting forth, profuse flow, hemorrhage

30

SUFFIX
-rhea

flow, discharge

31

SUFFIX
-rhexis

rupture

32

SUFFIX
-schisis

fissure, splitting

33

WORD AS SUFFIX
dilation, dilatation

expansion, widening

34

WORD AS SUFFIX
ectasia, ectasis

dilation, dilatation, distension

35

WORD AS SUFFIX
edema

accumulation of fluid, swelling

36

WORD AS SUFFIX
lysis

separation, loosening, dissolving, destruction

37

WORD AS SUFFIX
malacia

softening

38

WORD AS SUFFIX
necrosis

death of tissue

39

WORD AS SUFFIX
ptosis

dropping, downward displacement, prolapse

40

WORD AS SUFFIX
sclerosis

hardening

41

WORD AS SUFFIX
spasm

sudden contraction, cramp

42

WORD AS SUFFIX
stasis

suppression, stoppage

43

WORD AS SUFFIX
stenosis

narrowing, constriction

44

WORD AS SUFFIX
toxin

poison

45

What are infectious diseases caused by?

Viruses
Bacteria
Fungi (yeast and molds)
Protozoa (single-celled animals)
Worms

46

PREFIX
staphyl/o-

grapelike cluster

47

PREFIX
strept/o-

twisted chain

48

ROOT
bacill/i, bacill/o

bacillus

49

ROOT
bacteri/o

bacterium

50

ROOT
myc/o

fungus, mold

51

ROOT
vir/o

virus

52

TERM
acute

Sudden, severe; having a short course

53

TERM
benign

Not recurrent or malignant; favorable for recovery; describing tumors that do not spread

54

TERM
carcinoma

A malignant neoplasm composed of epithelial cells (from Greek root carcino, meaning “crab”) (adjective: carcinomatous)

55

TERM
chronic

Of long duration; progressing slowly

56

TERM
cyst

An abnormal filled sac or pouch. Used as a root meaning a normal bladder or sac, such as the urinary bladder or gallbladder (root: cyst/o)

57

TERM
edema

Accumulation of fluid in the tissues; swelling. Adjective edematous

58

TERM
etiology

The cause of a disease

59

TERM
Gram stain

A laboratory staining procedure that divides bacteria into two groups: gram-positive, which stain blue, and gram-negative, which stain red

60

TERM
hernia

Protrusion of an organ through an abnormal opening; a rupture

61

TERM
inflammation

A localized response to tissue injury characterized by heat, pain, redness, and swelling

62

TERM
lesion

A distinct area of damaged tissue; an injury or wound

63

TERM
malignant

Growing worse; harmful; tending to cause death; describing an invasive tumor that can spread (metastasize) to other tissues

64

TERM
metastasis

Spread from one part of the body to another; characteristic of cancer. Verb is metastasize (me-TAS-ta-sīz); adjective: metastatic (met-a-STAT-ik)

65

TERM
necrosis

Death of tissue (root necr/o means “death”); adjective: necrotic (ne-KROT-ik)

66

TERM
neoplasm

An abnormal and uncontrolled growth of tissue, namely, a tumor; may be benign or malignant. From prefix neo- meaning “new” and root plasm meaning “formation.” The root onc/o and the suffix -oma refer to neoplasms.

67

TERM
parasite

An organism that grows on or in another organism (the host), causing damage to it

68

TERM
pathogen

An organism capable of causing disease (root path/o means “disease”)

69

TERM
phagocytosis

The ingestion of organisms, such as invading bacteria or small particles of waste material by a cell (root phag/o means “to eat”). The phagocytic cell, or phagocyte, then destroys the ingested material

70

TERM
prolapse

A dropping or downward displacement of an organ or part; ptosis

71

TERM
pus

A product of inflammation consisting of fluid and white blood cells (root: py/o)

72

TERM
sarcoma

A malignant neoplasm arising from connective tissue (from Greek root sarco, meaning “flesh”) (adjective: sarcomatous)

73

TERM
sepsis

The presence of harmful microorganisms or their toxins in the blood or other tissues (adjective: septic)

74

TERM
toxin

A poison (adjective, toxic) (roots: tox/o, toxic/o)

75

TERM
trauma

A physical or psychological wound or injury

76

TERM
acid-fast stain

A laboratory staining procedure used mainly to identify the tuberculosis (TB) organism

77

TERM
communicable

Capable of passing from one person to another, such as an infectious disease

78

TERM
endemic

Occurring at a low level but continuously in a given region, such as the common cold

79

TERM
epidemic

Affecting many people in a given region at the same time; a disease that breaks out in a large proportion of a population at a given time

80

TERM
exacerbation

Worsening of disease; increase in severity of a disease or its symptoms

81

TERM
iatrogenic

Caused by the effects of treatment (from Greek root iatro-, meaning “physician”)

82

TERM
idiopathic

Having no known cause (root idio means “self-originating”)

83

TERM
in situ

Localized, noninvasive (literally “in position”); said of tumors that do not spread, such as carcinoma in situ (CIS)

84

TERM
normal flora

The microorganisms that normally live on or in the body. These organisms are generally harmless, and often are beneficial, but they can cause disease under special circumstances, such as injury or failure of the immune system

85

TERM
nosocomial

Describing an infection acquired in a hospital (root nos/o means “disease,” and comial refers to a hospital). Such infections can be a serious problem, especially if they are resistant to antibiotics; for example, there are now strains of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin-resistant S. aureus (VRSA), which cause troublesome infections in hospital settings

86

TERM
Opportunistic

Describing an infection that occurs because of a host's poor or altered condition

87

TERM
Pandemic

Describing a disease that is prevalent throughout an entire region or the world. AIDS is now pandemic in certain regions of the world.

88

TERM
Remission

A lessening of disease symptoms; the period during which such lessening occurs

89

TERM
Septicemia

Presence of pathogenic bacteria in the blood; blood poisoning

90

TERM
Systemic

Pertaining to the whole body

91

TERM
abscess

A localized collection of pus

92

TERM
adhesion

A uniting of two surfaces or parts that may normally be separated

93

TERM
anaplasia

Lack of normal differentiation, as shown by cancer cells

94

TERM
ascites

Accumulation of fluid in the peritoneal cavity

95

TERM
cellulitis

A spreading inflammation of tissue

96

TERM
effusion

Escape of fluid into a cavity or other body part

97

TERM
exudate

Material that escapes from blood vessels as a result of tissue injury

98

TERM
fissure

A groove or split

99

TERM
fistula

An abnormal passage between two organs or from an organ to the surface of the body

100

TERM
gangrene

Death of tissue, usually caused by lack of blood supply; may be associated with bacterial infection and decomposition

101

TERM
hyperplasia

Excessive growth of normal cells in normal arrangement

102

TERM
hypertrophy

An increase in size of an organ without increase in the number of cells; may result from an increase in activity, as in muscles

103

TERM
induration

Hardening; an abnormally hard spot or place

104

TERM
metaplasia

Conversion of cells to a form that is not normal for that tissue (prefix meta- means “change”)

105

TERM
polyp

A tumor attached by a thin stalk

106

TERM
purulent

Forming or containing pus

107

TERM
suppuration

Pus formation

108

AF

Acid fast

109

CA

Cancer

110

CIS

Carcinoma in situ

111

FUO

Fever of unknown origin

112

Gm+

Gram-positive

113

Gm-

Gram-negative

114

MRSA

Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus

115

Staph

Staphylococcus

116

Strep

Streptococcus

117

VRSA

Vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus