Chapter 4 Cells, Tissues and Organs Flashcards Preview

Cohen Medical Terminology > Chapter 4 Cells, Tissues and Organs > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 4 Cells, Tissues and Organs Deck (65):
1

ROOT
morph/o

form

2

ROOT
cyt/o, -cyte

cell

3

ROOT
nucle/o

nucleus

4

ROOT
kary/o

nucleus

5

ROOT
hist/o
histi/o

tissue

6

ROOT
fibr/o

fiber

7

ROOT
reticul/o

network

8

ROOT
aden/o

gland

9

ROOT
papill/o

nipple

10

ROOT
myx/o

mucus

11

ROOT
muc/o

mucus, mucous membrane

12

ROOT
somat/o
-some

body, small body

13

ROOT
blast/o,
-blast

immature cell, productive cell, embryonic cell

14

ROOT
gen

origin, formation

15

ROOT
phag/o

eat, ingest

16

ROOT
phil

attract, absorb

17

ROOT
plas

formation, molding, development

18

ROOT
trop

act on, affect

19

ROOT
troph/o

feeding, growth, nourishment

20

SUFFIX
-ase

enzyme

21

SUFFIX
-ose

sugar

22

ROOT
hydr/o

water, fluid

23

ROOT
gluc/o

glucose

24

ROOT
glyc/o

sugar, glucose

25

ROOT
sacchar/o

sugar

26

ROOT
amyl/o

starch

27

ROOT
lip/o

lipid, fat

28

ROOT
adip/o

fat

29

ROOT
steat/o

fatty

30

ROOT
prote/o

protein

31

TERM
ATP

he energy compound of the cell; stores energy needed for cell activities. ATP stands for adenosine triphosphate

32

TERM
carbohydrate

The category of organic compounds that includes sugars and starches

33

TERM
cell

The basic structural and functional unit of the living organism; a microscopic unit that combines with other cells to form tissues (root cyt/o)

34

TERM
chromosome

A threadlike body in a cell's nucleus that contains genetic information

35

TERM
cytology

Study of cells

36

TERM
cytoplasm

The fluid that fills a cell and holds the organelles

37

TERM
DNA

The genetic compound of the cell; makes up the genes. DNA stands for deoxyribonucleic acid.

38

TERM
enzyme

An organic substance that speeds the rate of metabolic reactions

39

TERM
gene

A hereditary unit composed of DNA and combined with other genes to form the chromosomes

40

TERM
glucose

A simple sugar that circulates in the blood; the main energy source for metabolism (roots: gluc/o, glyc/o)

41

TERM
histology

Study of tissues

42

TERM
homeostasis

A steady state; a condition of internal stability and constancy

43

TERM
lipid

A category of organic compounds that includes fats (root lip/o)

44

TERM
metabolism

The sum of all the physical and chemical reactions that occur within an organism

45

TERM
mitosis

Cell division

46

TERM
mucus

A thick fluid secreted by cells in membranes and glands that lubricates and protects tissues (roots: muc/o, myx/o); the adjective is mucous.

47

TERM
nucleus

The cell's control center; directs all cell activities based on the information contained in its chromosomes (roots nucle/o, kary/o)

48

TERM
organ

A part of the body with a specific function. A component of a body system

49

TERM
organelle

A specialized structure in the cytoplasm of a cell

50

TERM
protein

A category of organic compounds that includes structural materials, enzymes, and some hormones

51

TERM
RNA

An organic compound involved in the manufacture of proteins within cells. RNA stands for ribonucleic acid

52

TERM
tissue

A group of cells that acts together for a specific purpose (root: hist/o, histi/o)

53

TERM
amino acids

The nitrogen-containing compounds that make up proteins

54

TERM
anabolism

The type of metabolism in which body substances are made; the building phase of metabolism

55

TERM
catabolism

The type of metabolism in which substances are broken down for energy and simple compounds

56

TERM
collagen

A fibrous protein found in connective tissue

57

TERM
cortex

The outer region of an organ

58

TERM
glycogen

A complex sugar compound stored in liver and muscles; broken down into glucose when needed for energy

59

TERM
interstitial

Between parts, such as the spaces between cells in a tissue

60

TERM
medulla

The inner region of an organ; marrow (root: medull/o)

61

TERM
parenchyma

The functional tissue of an organ

62

TERM
parietal

Pertaining to a wall; describes a membrane that lines a body cavity

63

TERM
soma

The body

64

TERM
stem cell

An immature cell that has the capacity to develop into any of a variety of different cell types. A precursor cell

65

TERM
visceral

Pertaining to the internal organs; describes a membrane on the surface of an organ