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Flashcards in chapter-1 Deck (173)

Historically, who comprised about 80 percent of America's air forces? (18)

Enlisted Airmen.


When WWI began in Europe in August 1914, the 1st Aero Squadron mustered 12 officers, 54 enlisted men and six aircraft. How many did it have by the end of 1915?(18)

44 officers, 224 enlisted men and 23 airplanes.


By 1916, a second aero squadron was added for duty in the Philippines. How many total squadrons of 12 aircraft were planned? (18)

24 squadrons - seven with the regular army, 12 with the National Guard and five for coastal defense. (Also balloon units for the field and coast artillery.)


How many squadrons were fully equipped, manned and organized when the US declared war on Germany on 6 April 1917? (18)

Only one, the 1st Aero Squadron.


Traditionally, commissioned officers served as pilots before WWI. What types of auxiliary capacities did trained enlisted personnel fill? (18)

Supply, construction, photo reconnaissance, radio, mechanics, armament specialists, welders, riggers, sail makers, etc. (Mechanics were needed most.)


At first, service factories were used as training sites. By the end of 1917, the Aviation Section trained mechanics and others at special schools and technical institutions. Where were the two largest located? (18)

In St. Paul, MN and at Kelly Field, TX.


General HQ (GHQ) Air Force waited until WWII began before starting a massive expansion program. T/F (18)

False. (The expansion program began even before WWII broke out.)


In 1938, the total force included fewer than 20,000 enlisted Airmen. By March 1944, air force manpower reached its high point (2,104,405 enlisted men and women). What law did Congress pass in 1940? (18)

The first peacetime conscription law in US history.


Even though training centers expanded and multiplied from 1939 to 1941, what helped meet the demand for training? (19)

Private schools.


What was the estimated ratio of support personnel to planes during WWII? (19)

70 men to one plane.


Women served in the Army Air Force during WWIIthrough what program? (19)

The Women's Army Auxiliary Corps (WAAC), created in May 1942 and later renamed the Women's Army Corps (WAC).


What was the top priority for assignment of Women's Army Auxiliary Corps (WAAC) during WWII? (19)

Serving at aircraft warning service stations. (They served in many capacities and demand for them soon far exceeded the numbers available.)


What led to the integration of the Air Force? (19)

On 11May1949, Air Force Letter 35.3 mandated that black Airmen be screened for reassignment to formerly all-white units according to their qualifications. (Within a year, virtually the entire Air Force was integrated with few incidents.)


When did the Third Reich surrender? (19)

In May 1945. (Following the 1944 invasion of Europe and the Allied ground forces' advance toward Berlin.)


Despite low-level fire bombing and destruction ofJapanese cities throughout spring and summer of 1945, Japan continued to resist What did US commanders realize was the only way to force its unconditional surrender? (19)

An American invasion of the Japanese islands and the subjugation of the Japanese.


Enola Gay dropped the first nuclear bomb on whatJapanese city? (20)

Hiroshima. (6 August 1945.)


Three days after Hiroshima, ____ dropped the second nuclear bomb on Nagasaki, Japan. (20)

Rock's Car.


The Soviet Union fought against Hitler with theWestern allies. Why didn't this alliance survive after the war? (20)

Because of ideological differences between capitalist democracies and Communism.


Who were the Big Three who met in 1945 to discuss the postwar division of Europe? (20)

British Prime Minister Winston Churchill, Soviet Premier Josef Stalin and US President Franklin D. Roosevelt.


What did the meeting of the Big Three in 1945 laythe foundation for? (20)

The UN.


What UN plan did the Soviet Union veto in 1946,leading to almost five decades of cold war? (20)

The plan to eliminate nuclear weapons, using inspectors to ensure no country made atomic bombs and supervise the dismantling of existing weapons.


How did the allies respond when the Soviet Unionclosed off all surface access to Berlin, Germany in June 1948? (20)

They "built" an air bridge to supply Berlin rather than forcing the blockade and risking World War III.


What was air power's most decisive contribution tothe cold war? (20)

The Berlin airlift.


Who led the 15-month Berlin airlift, bringing in more than 2.33 million tons of supplies on 277,569 flights? (20)

Major General William Tunner. (He also led the Hump airlift over the Himalayan mountains to supply China during WWII.)


Of all the enlisted functions, which was perhaps most critical to the success of the Berlin airlift? (20)



The Soviets capitulated and dismantled the surfaceblockade of Berlin without a bomb being dropped. What did this victory lay the foundation for? (20)



The Korean War lasted from 1950 to __ . (21)



How did the Korean War begin? (21)

With a surprise invasion of South Korea by North Korea on 25 June 1950.


By 1950, where was most US ground and air strength located in the Pacific? (21)

In Japan. (But they didn't have the range to intercede in Korea from Japan.)


Where did the first aerial combat between the USand North Korea take place on 27 June 1950? (21)

Over Kimpo.


Enlisted personnel served as gunners aboard the B-26 and B-29 aircraft during the Korean War. Name the NCO who shot down a North Korean YaK-3, the first such victory recorded during the war. (21)

SSgt Nyle S. Mickley.


What turned a stalled North Korean offensive into adisorganized retreat back to the north in September1950? (21)

US forces landed in South Korea and pursued the beaten army north of the 38th parallel.


Give three examples of missions performed by B-29s that hadn't been considered before the Korean War. (21)

1) Interdiction; 2) battlefield support;3) air superiority (counter-airfield).


On 9 November 1950, Cpl Harry LaVene (a gunner)scored the first B-29 victory over a jet by downing a(n) __ .(21)

MiG-15. (The first of 27 MiGs shot down by B-29 gunners during the Korean War.)


Name the NCO who shot down two MiGs on 12 April 1951, a feat unmatched by any other gunner. (21)

Sgt Billie Beach.


In 1959, Fidel Castro overthrew the dictator inand instituted a socialist dictatorship. (21)

Cuba. (Hundreds of thousands of Cubans fled, many to the US.)


The CIA planned the 1961 invasion of Cuba at theBay of Pigs in hopes that the Cuban people would overthrow Castro. Who were used as troops? (21-22)

Cuban exiles. (They suffered a crushing defeat.)


In 1962, the Soviets and Cuba began to build what in Cuba?(22)

Intermediate- and medium-range ballistic missile complexes (which would be able to employ nuclear-armed missiles with a range ofup to 5,000 miles).


How was Soviet construction of missile complexes in Cuba confirmed? (22)

Through Air Force reconnaissance flights (first with highaltitude U-2 aircraft, followed by low-level RF-lOls and RB- 66s).


While Strategic Air Command (SAC) and TacticalAir Command (TAC) geared up for a possible invasion of Cuba and war, what did President Kennedy do to deal with the Cuban Missile Crisis? (22)

He imposed a naval blockade to prevent any more materiel from reaching Cuba and negotiated with Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev to remove the missiles.


When Cuban air defenses shot down a U-2 piloted by Maj Rudolf Anderson, what did the Joint Chiefs of Staff (JCS) recommend? (22)

An immediate air strike against Cuba. (But President Kennedy decided to wait.)


The US agreed not to invade Cuba in exchange forremoval of Soviet missiles from the island. What did the US also secretly agree to do? (22)

Remove US missiles from Turkey.


The Cuban missile crisis brought the world dangerously close to nuclear war, but the strategic and tactical power of the US Air Force (coupled with the will and ability to use it) helped deter it. T/F (22)



In the 1950s, US involvement in Vietnam began aswhat kind of operation? (22)

A cold war operation to contain Communism.


What US President first authorized American intervention in Vietnam? (22)

President Harry S. Truman in 1950.


What aid did the US first give to Vietnam between1950 to 1953? (22-23)

Eight C-47 transports, the US Military Assistance Advisory Group (MAAG) and enlisted technicians to handle supply and aircraft maintenance.


What 1953 Viet Minh action (under Ho Chi Minh'sdirection) led President Eisenhower to send C-119 transports to the area? (23)

The Viet Minh major offensive advanced into Laos and menaced Thailand. (In 1954, 300 Airmen were sent to service aircraft along with additional cargo planes.)


What was the first sustained bombing campaign ofthe war against North Vietnam? (23)

Rolling Thunder from 1965 to 1968. (The earlier Operation Flaming Dart was a series of strikes.)


Airmen performed a variety of duties as the war inVietnam expanded, ranging from support to combat and rescue. Prime Base Engineer Emergency Force (BEEF) personnel built revetments and facilities. What did REDHORSE teams provide? (23)

Long-range civil engineer services.


As guerilla attacks continued, air base defense inVietnam became a monumental undertaking performed almost exclusively by Air Force ____ squadrons. (23)

Security police.


Name the SSgt of the 3d Security Police Squadronwho earned a Silver Star for heroics while helping defend Bien Hoa Air Base in Vietnam during the North Vietnamese Tet Offensive of 1968. (23)

SSgt William Piazza.


American presidents wanted the Vietnam conflict tobe fought and resolved by the Vietnamese with the US in a(n) " __ "role only. (24)



American responsibility in the Vietnam conflict became primarily for combat operations after what incident, followed by the Senate resolution in 1964? (24)

The GulfofTonkin incident.


In 1969, President Nixon announced that ending UScombat in Southeast Asia was a primary goal. What did he charge the SecDef with as a top priority? (24)

The Vietnamization of the war.


Enlisted Airmen trained South Vietnamese operational and training crews as Vietnam's air force grew to become the __ largest in the world. (24)



In 1972, Communist forces crossed the Demilitarized Zone (DMZ), taking advantage of reduced US ground presence. How did President Nixon respond? (24)

Wind and New Arrivals, more than 50,000 refugees were airlifted to the US and units moved 5,000 relief workers and more than 8,500 tons of supplies.)


What air operation convinced the North Vietnameseto finally resume negotiations? (24)

Operation Linebacker II - 11 days of intensive bombing of Vietnamese cities by B-52s.


When was a cease-fire agreement hammered outwith the North Vietnamese? (24)

By 28 January 1973.


Although there was no victory and no end tofighting, the US withdrew from Vietnam. When did the last US troops leave the country? (24)

29 March 1973. (The military draft ended on 27 January 1973.)


How long after the first cease-fire were North andSouth Vietnam officially unified under a Communist regime? (24)

After only three years (2 July 1976).


One of the first known uses of aircraft to render assistance was dropping food to ____ flood victimsin 1919. (24)

Rio Grande. (Many early domestic humanitarian flights were flown in response to winter emergencies.)


Name two humanitarian missions to foreign nationsflown by Army aircraft before the independent Air Force was established. (24)

Any two of the following: 1) delivering medical supplies to earthquake victims in Chile in 1939; 2) dropping diphtheria vaccine to prevent a shipboard epidemic on a British aircraft carrier in 1943; 3) dropping food to starving French citizens in 1944; and 4) delivering food to the Netherlands in Operation Chowhound in 1945.


What operations in 1956 and 1957 airlifted morethan 10,000 Hungarian refugees to the US for asylum after Soviet forces crushed an anticommunist uprising in Hungary? (24)

Operations Safe Haven I and II.


What month-long airlift delivered more than 1,000tons of material to Chile in 1960 following earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, avalanches and tidal waves? (24)

The Amigos Airlift.


What 1975 event triggered the largest aerial evacuation in history? (24-25)

The fall of Cambodia and South Vietnam to Communist forces. (During Operations Babylift, New Life, Frequent Wind and New Arrivals, more than 50,000 refugees were airlifted to the US and units moved 5,000 relief workers and more than 8,500 tons of supplies.)


What 1991 humanitarian airlift provided blankets,tents and food to displaced Kurds in northern Iraq following the Persian Gulf War? (254)

Operation Provide Comfort.


What 1991 humanitarian airlift followed a typhoonin Bangladesh? (25)

Operation Sea Angel.


What humanitarian airlift in 1992 and 1993 providedfood, medicine and cargo to the republics of the former Soviet Union? (25)

Operation Provide Hope.


A 1994 humanitarian airlift carried 3,600 tons ofrelief supplies to refugees in what country in war-torn central Africa? (25)



What 1983 operation rescued hundreds of US citizens attending medical school in Grenada after a coup? (25)

Operation Urgent Fury.


During Operation Urgent Fury, which aircraft proved their worth repeatedly, showing more versatility and accuracy than naval bombardment and land artillery? (25)

AC-130 gunships.


Several Air Force enlisted personnel received special praise for their efforts in Operation Urgent Fury. What was Sgt Charles H. Tisby noted for? (25)

He was a loadmaster who saved the life of a paratrooper in his aircraft by hauling him back into the plane after his static line fouled.


By the mid-1980s, what country (led by MuammarQadhafi) was a leading sponsor of worldwide terrorism, financing terrorist training camps and supplying funds, weapons, logistical support and safe havens for many terrorist groups? (25)

Libya. (It also used subversion or direct military intervention against other African nations and ordered global assassinations.)


What 1984 directive established in principle a USpolicy of preemptive and retaliatory strikes against terrorists? (25)

National Security Decision Directive 138.


In 1990, Iraq (with the fourth largest army in theworld and a program to develop nuclear weapons) was poised at what country's doorstep? (26)

Saudi Arabia. (If the Saudis also fell, Iraq would control 50% of the world's oil.)


The US sought and received UN sanction to actagainst Iraq. How many nations joined us in Operation Desert Shield? (26)



What was Operation Desert Shield's aim? (26)

The massive military buildup in Saudi Arabia near Iraq's border aimed to deter Saddam Hussein's aggression against the Saudis and prepare for a counterinvasion, if necessary.


The defensive deployment for Operation DesertShield was impressive. A month into the crisis, how many Allied aircraft were in theater and combat ready? (26)



When did Operation Desert Storm begin? (26)

15 January 1991. (After Saddam Hussein missed the final deadline to withdraw from Kuwait.)


All four branches of the US Armed Forces played arole in Operation Just Cause. Its first night was the largest nighttime airborne operation since WWII. T/F (26)

True. (On the first night, 84 aircraft dropped nearly 5,000 troops.)


What equipment was first used during a contingency by Air Force personnel in Operation Just Cause's nighttime airdrop? (26)

Night vision goggles.


How long did it take US forces to eliminate organizedresistance during Operation Just Cause? (26)

Just six days. (It was the largest and most complex air operationsince Vietnam.)


What country did Iraq's Saddam Hussein invadeand attempt to annex on 2 August 1990? (26)

The small, oil-rich nation of Kuwait.


In 1990, Iraq (with the fourth largest army in theworld and a program to develop nuclear weapons) was poised at what country's doorstep? (26)

Saudi Arabia. (If the Saudis also fell, Iraq would control 50% of the world's oil.)


The US sought and received UN sanction to actagainst Iraq. How many nations joined us in Operation Desert Shield? (26)



What was Operation Desert Shield's aim? (26)

The massive military buildup in Saudi Arabia near Iraq's border aimed to deter Saddam Hussein's aggression against the Saudis and prepare for a counterinvasion, if necessary.


The defensive deployment for Operation DesertShield was impressive. A month into the crisis, how many Allied aircraft were in theater and combat ready? (26)



When did Operation Desert Storm begin? (26)

15 January 1991. (After Saddam Hussein missed the final deadline to withdraw from Kuwait.)


Within the first week of Desert Storm, the air warwas essentially won. T/F (27)

False. (It was won within the first 24 hours.)


During Desert Storm, coalition air forces poundedentrenched ground forces into surrender. What did they do during the final stages of the air war? (27)

They "tank plinked," destroying Iraqi tanks on the ground one at a time.


From suppliers to the line crews, coalition maintainers enabled a constant surge during Desert Storm. T/F (27)

True. (Maintenance was a key to the success of the air campaign.)


Name two lesser known high-tech jobs taken on byenlisted personnel during Desert Storm. (27)

1) Collection and analysis of electronic emissions undertaken with Electronic Warfare Officers (EWO); and 2) airborne intelligence technicians.


How long did it take for Iraq to surrender once theair war ended and the land invasion began during Desert Storm? (27)

Scarcely 48 hours. (Iraq surrendered on 28 February 1991.)


In the 43-day Desert Storm war with Iraq, the AirForce was the equal partner of land and sea power for the first time in modern combat. T/F (27)



The Air Force went into Desert Storm talking in coldwar terms about air superiority and sustainable casualties. What did it come out trumpeting? (27)

Air supremacy and minimal or no casualties.


On 27 September 1991, the cold war was officiallyover. What event signaled the end? (27)

Strategic bomber crews were ordered to stand down from their decades-long round-the-clock readiness for nuclear war. (It was a new world and the enlisted Airman's role changed, too.)


When Iraqi troops defeated a Kurdish rebellion innorthern Iraq in April 1991, more than a million Kurds fled to Iran and Turkey to avoid massacres. What operation was a UN Security Council-authorized humanitarian relief effort? (27)

Operation Provide Comfort. (The US organized a combined task force.)


Operation Provide Comfort evolved into a largerphased operation for US ground troops. T/F (27)



What did Operations Quick Transit I, II and III doin 1996? (27)

Airlifted displaced Kurds to safe areas in Turkey after Kurdish factions' struggle for power led one faction to accept Iraqi backing to drive another from the city of Irbil. (7,000 refugees proceeded on to Guam for settlement in the US in Operation Pacific Haven.)


What operation succeeded Operation Provide Comfort in January 1997? (28)

Operation Northern Watch.


What operation established a no-fly zone in southern Iraq in 1992 to discourage renewed Iraqi military activity near Kuwait? (28)

Operation Southern Watch. (It officially ended on 26 August 2003.)


Operation Southern Watch supported UN SecurityCouncil Resolution 688, which required what two things? (28)

1) Protecting Shiite Muslims under aerial attack by Saddam Hussein after Operation Desert Storm; and 2) enforcing other UN sanctions against Iraq.


Why did the US launch cruise missile strikes against the Iraqi Intelligence Service Headquarters in Baghdad \. , in June 1993? (28)

In retaliation for the planned assassination of former President George H. W. Bush during an April 1993 visit to Kuwait.


Operation Vigilant Warrior brought thousands ofadditional US armed forces personnel into the Iraqi theater in response to what Iraqi action? (28)

Iraqi troops massing at the Kuwaiti border in October 1994.


Operation Southern Watch proved the __ conceptwas sound when a composite unit arrived fully armed and began flying within 12 hours of landing. (28)

Air and Space Expeditionary Force (AEF). (Additional AEFs were deployed since to support Operation Southern Watch.)


When President Clinton expanded the SouthernWatch no-fly zone to the 33d parallel just south of Baghdad in 1997, it meant most of Iraqi airspace fell into nofly zones. T/F (28)

True. (President Clinton acted in response to Iraqi aggression against Kurdish rebels in northern Iraq.)


How did the Air Force react to the 1996 bombing ofKhobar Towers, Dhahran AB? (28)

It reorganized existing security police units into new security forces groups and squadrons trained and specialized in all aspects of force protection, including terrorist activity and deployed force security.


List the four operations the US initiated in Somaliabetween 1992 and 1994. (28-29)

1) Operation Provide Relief; 2) Operation Impressive Lift; 3) Operation Restore Hope; and 4) Operation Restore Hope II.


What 1992 operation helped relieve the suffering ofrefugees from the famine in Somalia? (28)

Operation Provide Relief


What prevented much of the relief supplies fromreaching the refugees during Operation Provide Relief? (28)

Continued civil war and clan fighting within Somalia.


In September 1992, Operation Impressive Lift airlifted hundreds of ____ forces to Somalia to increase security for relief efforts. (28)

UN. (Pakistani soldiers under the UN banner.)


What operation did President George H.W. Bushauthorize to establish order in Somalia with US troops in December 1992 so food could reach those in need? (29)

Operation Restore Hope. (The UN assumed control of the mission in March 1993 and it ended in May 1993.)


What operation was prompted by US losses in Mogadishu, Somalia in October 1993? (28)

Operation Restore Hope II. (It airlifted US troops and cargo to stabilize Mogadishu and ended in March 1994.)


When the last US forces exited Somalia without further casualties, the country was stable and the threat of famine had ended. T/F (29)

False. (Anarchy ruled in Somalia and the threat of famine remained.)


When the US decided to intervene in Haiti in 1994,how many plans did the US Atlantic Command develop for Operation Uphold Democracy? (29)

Two (one forcible-entry, the other passive-entry).


What unexpectedly changed Operation Uphold Democracy in 1994 from a military invasion to an insertion of a multinational peacekeeping force? (29)

At the last minute, former President Jimmy Carter persuaded the military leader of Haiti to relinquish control.


The successful adaptation to the last-minute change in mission in Haiti showed the __ air power offers US military and political leaders to fulfill foreign policy objectives. (29)



Which UN airlift operation to Sarajevo in Bosnialasted from 1992 to 1996? (29)

Operation Provide Promise.


What factors led Yugoslavia to break into independent ethnic states? (29)

The collapse of Communism in Eastern Europe coupled with the disintegration of the Soviet Union itself


Which religions were prominent in the breakup ofYugoslavia in 1992? (29)

Roman Catholicism (in Slovenia and Croatia), Eastern Orthodoxy (in Serbia) and Islam (in Bosnia).


Serbs within Bosnia grew fearful because of theirminority status to the Muslims. What action did they take? (29)

They armed themselves and began forming their own ethnic state by seizing territory and besieging the Bosnian capital of Sarajevo.


At least 15 countries airlifted supplies to Sarajevo.Over the course of Operation Provide Promise, AFR, ANG and active duty units rotated from the US on __ - week deployments. (29)



Why did President Clinton significantly expand Operation Provide Promise? (29)

In response to continued attacks by Bosnian Serbs on Sarajevo and on the relief aircraft themselves.


What secondary mission dropped 50 tons of toys and children's clothes and shoes over Sarajevo in December 1993? (29)

Operation Provide Santa.


Where did warring Bosnian factions sign peace accords in December 1995? (29)

At Wright-Patterson AFB, OH.


What NATO operation (1993-1995) attempted toimpose a no-fly zone over Bosnia in an effort to limit the war? (29)

Operation Deny Flight.


When did NATO score the first aerial combat victories in its 45-year history? (29)

When two US F-16s intercepted six Bosnian Serb jets and shot down four in February 1994 during Operation Deny Flight.


Operation Deny Flight stopped the Bosnian Serbattacks and effectively limited the war. T/F (30)



What 1995 operation held Bosnian Serbs accountable for attacks against UN forces and Sarajevo with an incessant air campaign, striking targets throughout the country? (30)

Operation Deliberate Force.


Operation Deliberate Force marked the first campaign in aerial warfare where __ munitions outweighed conventional bombs. (30)

Precision. (The Serbs agreed to NA TO terms and the bombing stopped. Deliberate Force officially ended 21 September 1995.)


After the warring Bosnian parties signed peace accords in Paris in December 1995, what operation replaced Operation Deliberate Force in 1996? (30)

Operation Joint Endeavor. (Its mission was to implement the agreements.)


The Serbian government's oppression of the ethnicAlbanian population in Kosovo turned to violence and mass killings, led by President __ . (30)

President Slobodan Milosevic.


What NATO operation began in March 1999 to forceSerbia to accept NA TO terms for ending the conflict and avoid the ethnic cleansing that took place in Bosnia? (30)

Operation Allied Force.


NATO hoped Milosevic would capitulate after just afew days of air strikes, but it took __ days and morethan 38,000 sorties in the air war over Serbia. (30)

78 days.


Why were NATO's unity and determination fundamental in resolving the conflict with Milosevic? (30)

The precision and persistence of the air campaign convinced Milosevic that he couldn't outwait NATO.


The Air Force responded quickly to the four unprecedented acts of violence in New York City, western Pennsylvania and Washington, DC on __ 2001. (30)

11 September 2001.


When did fighter aircraft begin to fly combat airpatrols over US skies in support of Operation Noble Eagle? (30)

11 September 2001, the same day as the terrorist attacks.


What percentage of pilots flying Noble Eagle missions belonged to the ANG? (30)

More than 80%.


After 11 September 2001, what operation took thefight to the nation's enemies overseas, most notably in Afghanistan? (31)

Operation Enduring Freedom.


What was the twofold mission of Operation Enduring Freedom? (31)

To I) provide humanitarian airlift to the people of Afghanistan; and 2) conduct military action to root out terrorists and their supporters there.


The government of Afghanistan, the __ , refuseddemands to hand over suspected terrorists and close terrorist training camps after 11 September 2001. (31)



Aircraft from which three countries began a sustained campaign against terrorist targets during Operation Enduring Freedom? (31)

The US, Great Britain and France.


Along with US special operations and Afghan opposition forces, what weapons did air power employ to break the Taliban's will and capacity to resist in Operation Enduring Freedom? (31)

Precision weapons.


Set in southeastern Afghanistan on 4 March 2002,the Pentagon called it Operation Anaconda. What did the men who fought there call it? (31)

The Battle of Robert's Ridge. (The press called it the Battle at Shah-I-Kot Mountain.)


0peration Anaconda was one of the most intensesmall-unit firefights of the war against terrorism. USforces distinguished themselves with conspicuous bravery. Which forces secured the mountaintop and inflicted serious losses on al-Qaeda? (31)

Air Force, Army and Navy special operators. (Seven US servicemen were killed.)


0n 17 March 2003, what ultimatum did PresidentGeorge W. Bush give Saddam Hussein and his sons? (31)

Leave Iraq within 48 hours or face conflict. (It was rejected.)


What operation officially began on 20 March 2003and ended on 1 May 2003? (31)

Operation Iraqi Freedom.


How many troops deployed to the Gulf region forOperation Iraqi Freedom, forming a coalition of multinational troops? (31)

More than 300,000.


More cruise missiles were fired on the first day ofOperation Iraqi Freedom than during the entire firstGulf War. T/F (31)

True. (Between 300 and 400 cruise missiles were fired. The second day called for launching as many again.)


The battle plan for Operation Iraqi Freedom wasbased on what concept? (31)

"Shock and Awe," destroying the enemy's will to fight rather than physically destroying its military force.


What slowed the coalition's advance during Operation Iraqi Freedom? (32)

Heavy sand storms. (But soldiers came within 50 miles of Baghdad by 24 March and US tanks rumbled through downtown Baghdad on 7 April.)


Who was SSgt Scott Sather? (32)

A combat controller who became the first Airman killed in Operation Iraqi Freedom. (He died on 8 April 2003 and received seven medals during his career, including the Bronze Star.)


What town did British forces take, the key to delivering humanitarian aid during Operation Iraqi Freedom? (32)



When did US commanders declare that Saddam'sregime no longer controlled Baghdad? (32)

9 April 2003.


Who was the first person on the 55 most wantedleaders list issued by the coalition during Operation Iraqi Freedom to surrender? (32)

Iraq's science advisor.


On 2 May 2003, President Bush announced victoryin Iraq while aboard the aircraft carrier __ . (32)

USS Abraham Lincoln.


What was President Bush's 2 May 2003 declarationof victory in Iraq based on? (32)

An assessment given three days prior by General Tommy Franks, the top US military commander in the Gulf.


What operation signaled the start of the War in Afghanistan? (33)

Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF). (It began on 7 October 2001 and is now the US' longest-running war.)


During Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF), Airmenplayed a key role in the attempt to drive out the__ .(32)

Taliban. (Airmen also established forward assault landing strips, directed close air support strikes and recovered downed and wounded personnel.)


Which TSgt received the Silver Star for his actionsafter his patrol was ambushed in Afghanistan? (32)

TSgt Kevin Whalen. (He returned enemy fire to allow his team to seek cover, then called in close air support despite being wounded. He insisted that all other wounded be evacuated first so he could maintain control of close air support.)


What event on 25 June 1996 drove the Air Force toemphasize combat preparation as part of BMT? (32)

The Khobar Towers bombing. (A deployment phase called the BEAST was added to BMT to simulate the deployed environment.)


In addition to tackling the BEAST and massive obstacle courses, which additional BMT concepts help prepare Airmen for combat? (33)

Defending and protecting their base of operations, directing search and recovery operations, basic self-aid and buddy care, and leadership training. (Airmen are more prepared in 2012 for deployment, as a result of lessons learned from Khobar Towers.)


0n 11 March 2004 in Afghanistan, SMSgt RamonColon-Lopez overran enemy positions and suppressed enemy fire after his team's helicopter took sustained small-arms fire and was seriously damaged as it landed. He and his team succeeded in driving the enemy away. Which medal did Colon-Lopez receive for his actions? (33)

The Combat Action Medal. (Colon-Lopez was one of the first six recipients of the medal and also received the Bronze Star with Valor.)


Due to budget constraints, the Air Force reduced the active duty force in 2007 to __ percent of its size at the end of the Gulf War in 1991. (33)

64 percent. (In 2008, the number of active duty personnel shrank from 360,000 to 330,000.)


Name one of the three combat controllers who distinguished themselves during a January 2007 battle against about 800 heavily-entrenched Iraqi insurgents. (33)

Any one of the following: TSgt Bryan Patton; SSgt David Orvosh; or SSgt Ryan Wallace.


Which command did the Air Force establish in October 2008 to focus on nuclear assets? (33)

Air Force Global Strike Command (AFGSC).


What caused the Air Force to establish Air ForceGlobal Strike Command (AFGSC)? (33)

Two incidents involving mishandling of nuclear weapons. (Due to the incidents and the Air Force's declining nuclear focus and performance, both SECAF Michael Wynne and Chief of Staff: US Air Force (CSAF) General T. Michael Moseley resigned.)


When did the US complete its withdrawal of militarytroops from Iraq? (33)

18 December 2011. (This fulfilled the 2008 bilateral agreement signed, by President Bush, that mandated troop withdrawal from Iraqi territory by the end of201 l.)


What was the stated goal of the US invasion of Afghanistan on 7 October 2001? (34)

Dismantling the al Qaeda terrorist organization and ending its use of Afghanistan a~ a base.


Which is the US' longest-running war? (34)

The War in Afghanistan.


On 21 May 2012, leaders of the NATO-membercountries approved President Obama's exit strategy for Afghanistan. What does this exit strategy call for? (34)

An end to combat operations in Afghanistan in 2013 and withdrawal of the US-led international military force by the end of 2014.


Since the start of wartime operations in Iraq andAfghanistan, how many Civil Engineering ExplosiveOrdnance Disposal (EOD) Airmen have died while protecting US and coalition forces, as well as civilians, from IEDs? (34)

20. (In addition to those killed in action, 140 EOD Airmen were seriously wounded during combat operations.)


After 100 years, air power has evolved and its applications and effectiveness have improved with each conflict. During WWI, air power played a minor role. What role did it play in Kosovo? (34)

The only role.