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Flashcards in chapter-10 Deck (214)

Explain the difference between commanding andleading. (219)

Given the authority, anyone can command. Leading, however,is a delicate art that calls for people-oriented attributesdeveloped with determination and practical experience.


What is leadership? (219)

The art and science of influencing, motivating and directingAirmen to accomplish the Air Force mission in joint warfare.


What are the two fundamental elements of leadership?(219)

The 1) mission, objective or task; and 2) Airmen who accomplishit. (Leadership should support both elements.)


The Air Force expects members to develop leadershipskills. How does this development apply to enlistedmembers? (219)

Enlisted members will operate primarily at the tactical levelof expertise, combining their technical skills with their directinfluence on subordinates.


What is the primary task of every military organization?(219)

Accomplishing the mission.


State-of-the-art technology and equipment are theassets that determine the unit's success or failure. T/F(219)

False. (People are the most important assets. Without theirsupport, the unit will fail.)


What important principle of leadership is often neglected?(219)

Involvement - knowing your Airmen and showing sincereinterest in their problems, career development and welfare.(Involvement is key to maximizing worker performance andthe mission.)


Who must leaders hold accountable for their actions?(220)

Themselves and their people.


In General W. L. Creech's opinion, what is the most"ruinous path" for leaders? (220)

"Selective enforcement of rules and standards."


What may be the toughest part of being a leader?(220)

Setting a proper example. (Successful leaders constantlyevaluate themselves and work on their shortcomings.)


In leadership self-evaluation, you must assess howeffectively you can 1) make and stand by tough decisions;2) stay flexible; and3) remain enthusiastic and cheerful.Name three more areas you should assess. (220)

Any three of the following: assess how effectively you can 4)do your best with inadequate means;5) inspire people;6) take reasonable risks so subordinates can grow; 7) let subordinatesbe creative; 8) invite communication;9) listen; 10) withhold judgment until facts are in; 11) accept subordinates'failures as your own; 12) recognize their successes as theirown; 13) do many things at once; 14) manage complex jobs;15) carry out orders as well as give them.


What six things did General Louis L. Wilson, Jr.advise leaders to do? (220-221)

1) Be tough; 2) get out from behind the desk; 3) search outproblems; 4) find the critical path to success; 5) be sensitive;6) be honest.


What did General Louis L. Wilson, Jr. advise leadersnot to do? (221)

Don't 1) take things for granted; 2) alibi; 3) procrastinate4) tolerate incompetence.


Morale will almost certainly be higher if you are atough leader. T/F (220)

True. (Set your standards high and insist your people measureup.)


What leadership advice eliminates many peopleproblems and shows your Airmen that you're interestedin their problems, work conditions and welfare? (220)

Get out from behind your desk and see for yourself what'sgoing on in your work center.


Every organization has problems. As a leader, whatis the trick to finding them? (221)

Fostering an environment that encourages people to bringthem to you.


What does "find the critical path to success" mean toleaders? (221)

Get involved personally and concentrate on make-or-breakissues in your organization. Don't waste time on inconsequentialor trivial matters.


Explain what "do not alibi" means to leaders. (221)

People make mistakes. Don't be defensive about them.


As a leader, you are advised to be sensitive and empatheticwith your people, yet you shouldn't tolerate incompetence.What should you do if someone demonstrateslaziness, disinterest or inability to get the jobdone? (221)

Terminate his or her assignment.


Nothing can be more disastrous than garbled information,half-truths and falsifications. Regarding honesty,what leadership advice did General Louis L. Wilson Jr.give first? (221)

Tell it like it is and insist that your people do likewise. (Healso advised leaders to create an atmosphere of trust andconfidence.)


What standards must Air Force leaders know andenforce? (221)

Standards of conduct, discipline, and customs and courtesies.


What is the mission of the Air Force? (221)

To deliver sovereign options for the defense of the UnitedStates and its global interests - to fly and fight in air, spaceand cyberspace.


What oath does every member take voluntarily uponentering the Air Force and reaffirm upon reenlistment?(221)

To support and defend the US Constitution, bear true faithand allegiance to it, and obey the orders of the President andsuperior officers according to regulations and the UCMJ.


When are Air Force members subject to duty? (222)

24 hours a day, 365 days a year.


The __ of __ provides the control and communicationsneeded to accomplish the mission. (222)

Chain of command. (It cannot work without loyalty at everylevel.)


What is the key principle behind the chain of command?(222)

Resolving problems and seeking answers at the lowest possible level.


Standards of conduct only apply while on-duty in a Vmilitary environment. T/F (222)

False. (They apply on- and off-duty, in personal behaviorand in treatment of others, in military and civilian environments.)


Officers and NCOs must not give the appearance offavoritism or impropriety in their personal relationships with whom? (222)

Coworkers and Airmen. (Excessive socialization and unduefamiliarity, real or perceived, degrade leadership.)


Some people believe military success depends oneffective management, while others believe charismatic leadership is the key to success. Who is correct? (222)

A combination of both is essential.


The roles of leadership and management are betterunderstood in terms of what three elements? (222)

1) Behavior; 2) personal characteristics; and 3) organizational situation.


Which author stated, "Management is getting people to do what needs to be done. Leadership is getting people to want to do what needs to be done"? (222)

Warren G. Bennis, PhD


"Leadership is of the spirit ... management is of the__ ," according to Field Marshal Sir William Slim.(223)



__ administer, maintain and control. __ motivate,develop and inspire. (223-Fig)

Managers. Leaders.


Are managers or leaders problem solvers who seekconflict avoidance? (223-Fig)

Managers. (Leaders are analysts of purposes and causes whoaccept and invite conflict.)


Are managers or leaders values-driven and ambiguous? (223-Fig)

Leaders. (Managers are statistics-driven and thrive on predictability.)


Do managers or leaders ensure organizational objectives are achieved, even if they disagree with them? (223-Fig)

Managers. (Leaders ensure that their objectives and those of the organization become the same.)


Are the personal characteristics of successful leaders or managers exclusively positive? (223)

Neither's personal characteristics are exclusively positive or negative. Leaders must have a grasp of management and leadership skills. The two cannot and should not be separated.


The art of leadership includes management. T/F(223)



Different personal characteristics mean the bestmanagers do not make good leaders, and vice versa. T/F (223)

False. (The best managers tend to become good leaders andeffective leaders are usually good managers.)


__ launch and steer organizations toward goalsand strategies. __ ensure resources are available and efficiently used. (223)

Leaders. Managers.


__ organize people. __ align them, understandthe vision and are committed to it. (223)

Managers. Leaders.


An organization needs a balance of strong leadership and strong management. T/F (223)



Explain why a peacetime force can survive with good management at all levels and good leadership concentrated at the top, but a wartime force needs competent leadership at all levels. (224)

Because good management brings a degree of order and consistencyto key issues like readiness, availability and sustainment,but people must be led into battle.


Name four leadership qualities. (224)

I) Positive attitude; 2) values; 3) character;4) credibility.


Why must a leader's attitude convey enthusiasm andencouragement? (224)

Because Airmen's attitudes are a direct reflection of the leader's attitude.


List three aspects of the leadership quality "values."(224)

1) Trust; 2) loyalty;3) integrity.


Why is reliability an important aspect of trust withinan organization? (224)

Because reliability (even in small things like punctuality and prompt attention to correspondence) translates into the trustpeople have in one another.


What value is defined as a consistent, honest demonstration of personal commitment to the organization and its vision? (224)



The leadership quality __ includes charisma,compassion and courage. (224)



Leadership combines competence and character.Which one are poor leaders most likely to lack? (224)



Paul Fussel wrote that followers must like and wantto be like the leader, or want the leader to like them. T/F (224)



A leader's character includes __ , a special characteristicthat inspires allegiance and devotion. (224)

Charisma. (It can be effective, but is not a cure-all for leadershipneeds.)


Courage takes many forms, not just in combat andhigh-risk situations. Leaders must also show the __courage to be honest and sincere in their day-to-day taskings. (224)

Moral. (A leader's courage helps followers maintain composure in stressful situations and provides motivation to endure hardships.)


Which leadership quality demonstrates humility,commitment and the ability to draw out each member's unique strengths? (224)



Why is a leader's credibility fragile? (225)

Because it takes years to earn through persistent, consistentand patient leadership, yet can be lost with one thoughtlessremark, act or broken agreement.


How do successful leaders earn credibility? (225)

They lead by example and take responsibility for their ownactions and those of their Airmen.


Through positive __ , leaders show that they liveby their values. (225)



What is the vision for Air Force Smart Operationsfor the 21st Century (AFS021)? (225)

To establish an environment in which all Airmen actively eliminate waste and continually improve processes.


Why is it crucial to embrace and communicate theAir Force Smart Operations for the 21st Century(AFS021) vision? (225)

Because Air Force leaders must have a collective vision that empowers, inspires, challenges and motivates followers to the highest levels of commitment and a continuous process improvement environment.


Vision helps people believe they can accomplish their goals and move toward a better future as a result of their own efforts. President Franklin D. Roosevelt's 1940 announcement of a production goal of 50,000 planes a year, and President John F. Kennedy's 1961 announcementthat we would put a man on the moon within the decadeare both examples of conveying a vision through __ .(225)



Leaders should constantly anticipate influences,trends and demands that will affect the vision. A common error of leadership is preoccupation with the __ at the expense of the future. (225)



To be of realistic value, a vision must be logical, deductive and plausible. T/F (225)

True. (It must also be specific enough to provide real guidance.)


When implementing the vision, senior leadership hasthe authority and responsibility to change the system as awhole. What can lower-level leaders do to implement thevision? (225)

Direct supervisors and subordinates to the appropriate tasksby communicating the vision to the unit, shop or work center.


A vision's originality is as important as how well itserves the mission requirements, the strategic goals of theunit and the Air Force as a whole. T/F (226)

False. (It is less important.)


Should a vision be enduring and committed orshould the process be continual, with revisions andamendments? (226)



__ means assigning people tasks to accomplish,while giving them the freedom to do so creatively. (226)



Effective empowerment requires good __ of authority.(226)



What kind of leadership emphasizes sensitivity toneeds, involves people and asks them for help? (226)

Participative. (Don't confuse this with empowerment.)


What does the essence of empowerment require?(226)

That leaders and followers identify with their respectiveshare of the organization's goals.


The continual of leader-follower roles createsan environment that allows leaders and followers to realize organizational goals and objectives more effectively.(226)



Is effective empowerment a new concept? (226)

No. (Great leaders of the past never directly told people howto do their job, but explained what needed to be done and lettheir people achieve their own successes.)


What is the cornerstone of the mutually dependentrelationship between leaders and followers? (226)



The guidelines to empowerment encourage leaders tobe flexible and patient. To whom should you delegatedecisions? (226)

To those closest to the issues. (Allow Airmen to choose howto implement the vision.)


While empowering followers, leaders must clearlymaintain a firm grip on the __ requirements and thestrategic plan. (226)



Regarding empowerment, in what way should Airmenbe encouraged to improve the organization's vision?(226-227)

Those with expert knowledge in a particular field should beencouraged to use this knowledge to improve the visionwhen and where possible.


Why do empowered followers need sufficient trainingon the task at hand? (226)

To realize their potential in fulfilling the organization's vision.


Empowerment requires even more highly refinedsupervisory skills than traditional autocracy. What four things do subordinates continually need in this respect?(227)

1) Direction; 2) knowledge; 3) resources;4) support.


Empowerment is often associated with __ leadership (abdicating responsibility and leaving Airmen to their own devices). (227)



Consensus is a determination of what the groupwants. Do leaders seek consensus? (227)

No, they build consensus.


Imposing empowerment on followers breeds __ .(227)

Compliance (not commitment).


Military life is a constant process of training andeducation. Should effective leaders be master students or master teachers? (227)

They must be both.


Why should leaders insist that Airmen focus theirattention on the aspects of a situation, mission or project they control? (227)

To foster professional growth. (Provide challenging and enlightening experiences.)


Setting __ encourages subordinates to learn, provides the leader with feedback on subordinates' performance, ensures quality control of unit output and gives subordinates a goal and the inspiration to develop and perform to the best of their ability. (227)



General H. Norman Schwarzkopf, Jr. said, "Peoplewant to know what is expected of them ... they need to know how you measure that success. Allow for a few because people should be given the latitude tolearn." (227)



To develop Airmen, a leader must 1) train replacements;and 2) develop understanding of roles and responsibilities.Name three more of these tasks. (227-228)

3) be an advisor and mentor; 4) provide opportunities for growth and promotion; 5) clarify expectations; 6) strengthen service identity; 7) allow Airmen to make decisions and experience leadership; and 8) encourageand facilitate formal education.


What is an important milestone in developing leadership?(228)

Experiencing a significant challenge early in a career.


As a leader, you must recognize and diagnose thecapabilities and developmental needs of your Airmen. What are some professional developmental needs youshould assist them with? (28)

Any of the following: PME; off-duty education; specific skill training; professional development courses or seminars; communication skills; or additional training.


What should you do after actively identifying peoplewith great leadership potential as early as possible? (228)

Determine appropriate challenges to develop their leadership. (Don't overlook a late bloomer's potential.)


When dealing with setbacks, why should leadersacknowledge an Airman's right to fail? (228)

It is a fundamental aspect of empowerment. (Airmen rely on the experience and understanding of strong leaders to deal with setbacks.)


The key to success is to avoid failure. T/F (228)

False. (Fear of failure stifles creativity and innovation and perpetuates complacency.)


Why is innovation inextricably connected with beingan effective leader? (228)

Leadership is charged with introducing new ideas, methods or solutions. (Innovation means change, and change requiresleadership.)


Leaders must be the cheif _____ officers in their organizations.

Transformation. (They must also learn everything about the change before it takes place; learn how to deal with the emotions associated with change; motivate the people supportingnew processes to meet the challenge and support the change; and maintain a clear understanding of the present and focuson the future.)


Leaders must create an organizational climate conducive to change. What two things must they also do when dealing with change? (228)

l) Facilitate the change itself by walking Airmen through the change, explaining it and answering questions; and 2) reward those who comply with the change and refocus those who do not.


List several suggestions for leaders coping withchange. (228-229)

1) Involve people in the change process; 2) fully explain the reason for change; 3) view change positively; 4) create enthusiasmfor the change;5) facilitate change (avoid forcing it); 6) be open-minded and experiment with alternatives; 7) seek out and accept criticism; and 8) never grow complacent.


What values are the bedrock of leadership in the Air Force?

The Air Force core values - Integrity First, Service BeforeSelf and Excellence in All We Do.


What do the Air Force core values provide? (229)

A foundation for leadership, decisionmaking and success, regardless of the level of assignment, difficulty or danger in the mission.


What Air Force core value is the single most important part of character? (229)

Integrity. (It is the basis for trust in today's Air Force.)


Airmen of integrity act on __ , demonstrating impeccable self-control without acting rashly. (229)

Conviction. (They are able to hold together and properly regulate their personality.)


What Air Force core value represents selfless dedicationto duty? (229)

Service Before Self.


Service Before Self means Airmen must ignore theirduty to their families. T/F (229)

False. (Airmen have a duty to their families just as strong astheir duty to the Air Force.)


Considering Service Before Self, Airmen must understand that organizational excellence can only occur in an atmosphere free from fear, ____ , sexual harassment, intimidation, hazing, or unfair treatment. (230)

Unlawful discrimination.


Service Before Self must show __ to their leaders,fellow Airmen and the Air Force. (230)

Loyalty. (This includes commitment to the Constitution,military chain of command, President and SecDef.)


What Air Force core value demands Airmen constantlystrive to perform at their best? (230)

Excellence in All We Do.


Excellence In All We Do fosters an organizationalculture that emphasizes what kind of mentality? (230)

A team mentality. (The organization still maintains standardsand accomplishes the mission.)


The Air Force core value, Excellence In All We Do,means Airmen are trained, fit, focused and ready to accomplishthe mission at all costs. T/F (230)

False. (Accomplish the mission safely and effectively.)


The Air Force core values are universal and unchanging,provide standards with which to evaluate the__ climate of all Air Force organizations and guide individuals in professional conduct.

Ethical climate.


Few leaders succeed without first learning the skillsof following. T/F (230)



How does the expression "people are our most valuableresource" describe the importance of followership?(230)

The knowledge, skills and abilities of today's Airmen offerlimitless opportunities to maximize work center effectiveness.To tap into this resource, leaders must nurture and developtheir Airmen's capabilities and foster their willingnessto improve organizational effectiveness.


Name at least five of the 10 essentials of good followership.(231)

Any five of the following: effective followers 1) see howtheir work contributes to the organization's big picture; 2)make sound decisions using a team approach; 3) have effectivecommunication skills; 4) require a strong level of com- \....;'mitment; 5) share their knowledge, skills and experience inproblem solving; 6) demonstrate loyalty and a willingness toact according to accepted beliefs; 7) adapt to change; 8) takeresponsibility for their own careers, actions and development;9) have the confidence and courage to do and say theright things at the right times; and 10) demonstrate competencyin their words and deeds to earn trust and an honorablereputation.


Followers must be respected. How can leadersdemonstrate belief in their Airmen? (231)

By I) maintaining or enhancing their Airmen's self-esteem;2) listening carefully to their Airmen and responding with empathy; 3) asking for their Airmen's help and encouragingtheir involvement.


Which five follower skills will improve dramaticallywhen empowered followership is promoted? (231)

1) Troubleshooting; 2) problem solving; 3) information gathering;4) conflict resolution; and 5) change management.


To promote followership, leaders and followers mustlisten and respond to one another's ideas and needs. Mutual __ is the axis around which this synergistic relationship revolves. (231)



A mentor is a trusted counselor or guide. What ismentoring? (232)

A relationship in which a person with greater experience andwisdom guides another person in personal and professionaldevelopment.


Mentoring is a promotion enhancement program.T/F (232)

False. (It is a professional development program designed tohelp each individual reach his or her maximum potential.)


In mentoring, professional development occurs atevery echelon and activity. T/F (232)



Why is mentoring part of a professional relationship?(232)

Because it 1) fosters communication; 2) enhances morale anddiscipline; 3) improves the operational environmentwhile maintaining respect for authority.


Name at least three areas that mentoring covers.(232)

Any three of the following: 1) career guidance;2) technicaland professional development; 3) leadership; 4) Air Forcehistory and heritage; 5) air and space power doctrine; 6) strategicvision; 7) contributions to joint warfighting; 8)knowledge of military ethics;9) understanding the Air Force's core values.


Who is an Airman's primary mentor? (232)

His or her immediate supervisor or rater.


Whose direct involvement is key to the mentoringprocess? (232)

The commander's and supervisor's.


List six programs that help commanders and supervisorsfocus their attention on an Airman's professionaldevelopment. (232)

1) Performance feedback; 2) PME; 3) academic educationopportunities; 4) assignment policies; 5) recognition programs;and 6) individual personal development actions.


There are many organizations, programs and associationsdedicated to the education and advancement ofmilitary professionals. T/F (232)



Who provides lists and contact information for organizationsthat support military development? (232)

The first sergeant, base education center, and Airman andFamily Readiness Center (AFRC).


It is the inherent responsibility of Air Force leadersto mentor future leaders. T/F (232)



How do supervisors help their people when mentoring?(232)

By providing realistic evaluations of performance and potentialand being positive role models.


Mentoring consists of a discussion of performance,potential and professional development plans during theperformance feedback session. What should this feedbackaddress as a minimum? (232)

1) Promotion; 2) PME; 3) advanced degree work; 4) physical fitness; 5) personal goals and expectations; 6) professionalqualities; 7) next assignment; and 8) long-range plans.


__ must distinguish between individual goals,career aspirations and realistic expectations. __ mustfocus on the Air Force's institutional needs. (232)

Mentors. Individuals.


Mentors must ensure personnel set __ butachievable goals. (232)



What are the roles of PME in professional development?(233)

Preparing individuals to take on increased responsibilitiesappropriate to their grade and enhancing their contribution tothe Air Force.


What do members focus on in PME? (233)

Enhancing professional competence and becoming superiorleaders, while expanding their operational employment ofair, space and cyberspace power knowledge.


How are postsecondary degrees important to professionaldevelopment? (233)

They can enhance your job and professional qualifications.(A degree related to your primary specialty area or occupationalseries is most helpful.)


What two requirements must SNCOs meet to receivea senior rater endorsement on their performance report?(233)

1) Completion of SNCOA correspondence or in residencecourse; and 2) a CCAF degree in any specialty.


Why should you consider membership in professionalorganizations and associations? (233)

They may provide additional opportunities for mentoring,develop professional skills and broaden your technical expertise.


Substantive and formal feedback is essential to theeffectiveness of the evaluation system. T IF (233)



What should performance feedback provide as partof mentoring and professional development? (233)

A realistic assessment of performance, career standing, futurepotential and actions to help the ratee reach the nextlevel of professional development.


What outlines the requirements for promotion selection(SSgt-MSgt) and provides feedback score sheets tohelp determine your professional development needs?(233)



Describe the "whole person concept" selection processused for promotion to SMSgt and CMSgt. (233)

Weighted scores are added to board scores based on performance,leadership, experience, job responsibility, professionalcompetence, specific achievements and education.


In the military assignment system, on what shouldthe mentor and individual focus? (233)

Obtaining an assignment that enhances professional developmentand meets Air Force needs, without necessarily keyingon a specific position or location.


Military assignments should complement the individual'sprofessional development needs and be secondonly to what? (233)

Mission requirements.


Who is eligible for consideration for various decorationsthroughout their career? (233)

All military members.


How should a supervisor's recommendations for116awards and decorations be restricted? (233)

To recognitions of meritorious service, outstanding achieve- Vment, etc., that clearly place the individual above his or herpeers.


__ Ieadership development is one of the most importantresponsibilities of every Air Force leader. (234)

Airmen. (Make it one of your highest priorities.)


Leaders help Airmen identify their strengths andweaknesses, create action plans and support themthroughout plan implementation and assessments. To besuccessful, what commitment is required from the Airmen?(234)

Airmen must be committed to improving and candid in theirself-assessments and goal setting.


How do leaders coach Airmen? (234)

1) identifying weaknesses; 2) setting goals; 3) developing and implementing plans of action; 4) providing oversight and motivation throughout the process.


144. Why do Air Force leaders counsel Airmen? (234)

To help them 1) become better team members; 2) maintain orimprove performance; and 3) prepare for the future.


145. To counsel effectively, leaders develop a counselingstyle that exemplifies what five characteristics? (234-Fig)

I) Purpose; 2) flexibility; 3) respect; 4) communication;5)support.


Effective counseling requires open, two-way communication.T/F (234-Fig)



To be effective counselors, what five qualities mustAir Force leaders demonstrate? (234)

1) Respect for Airmen; 2) self-awareness; 3) cultural awareness;4) empathy; 5) credibility.


How do leaders show respect for Airmen? (234)

By allowing Airmen to take responsibility for their own ideas and actions, which creates mutual respect in the leadersubordinate relationship. This improves the chances of changing or maintaining behavior and achieving goals.


Why must leaders be aware of their own values,needs and biases prior to counseling Airmen? (234)

Because self-aware leaders are less likely to project theirbiases onto Airmen and more likely to act consistently withtheir own values and actions.


To be effective counselors, why do leaders need to be aware of the similarities and differences between individuals of different cultural backgrounds and how thesefactors may influence values, perspectives and actions?(234)

So unfamiliarity with cultural backgrounds won't hinder addressingcultural issues. (Cultural awareness enhances yourability to display empathy.)


Empathy is being understanding and sensitive to the feelings, thoughts and experiences of another person to the point that you can almost feel or experience them yourself. Why is this quality important in leadershipcounseling? (234)

So leaders can see and understand situations from the other person's perspective and help Airmen develop a plan of action that fits the Airman's personality and needs. (A lack of understanding gives leaders less credibility and influence.)


As a counselor and leader, how do you achieve credibilitywith Airmen? (235)

1) Be honest and consistent in statements and actions; 2) be straightforward; 3) behave in a manner that Airmen respect and trust; and 4) repeatedly demonstrate your willingness tohelp.


All leaders should develop and improve their counselingskills. Techniques will vary, but should includewhat three general skills? (235)

I) Active listening - communicate verbally and nonverbally that you've received the message; 2) responding - clarify andconfirm what has been said using verbal and nonverbal responses;3) questioning - keeping questions open-endedto evoke more than a "yes" or "no" answer.


You can usually categorize developmental counselingbased on the session's topic. What are two major categoriesof counseling? (235)

Event-oriented counseling and performance and professionalgrowth counseling.


What does event-oriented counseling include? (235)

It includes (but is not limited to) counseling for specific instances,crisis counseling and referral counseling.


Counseling for specific instances is tied to episodes ofsuperior or substandard duty performance. What is thekey to its success? (235)

Conduct the counseling as close to the event as possible.(Don't forget to acknowledge excellent performance.)


Crisis counseling helps Airmen through the initialshock of receiving __ . (235)

Negative news. (Such as the death ofa loved one.)


__ counseling helps Airmen work through personalsituations and may act as preventive counselingbefore situations become a problem. (235)

Referral. (The leader helps the Airman identify the problemand refers the Airman to the appropriate resource, such aslegal services, a chaplain or an alcohol or drug counselor. Itmay or may not follow crisis counseling.)


What actions do leaders take during performanceand professional growth counseling? (235)

TheyI) review the Airman's duty performance during a certain period; 2) set standards for the next period; 3) focusthe session on the Airman's strengths, areas needing improvementand potential.


During counseling, effective leaders approach eachAirman as an individual realizing that different peopleand different situations require different counseling approaches.Name the three major counseling approaches.(236)

1) Nondirective; 2) directive;3) combined.


What is the largest difference among the three counselingapproaches? (236)

The degree of Airman participation and interaction.


The nondirective counseling approach is preferredfor most sessions. What is the counselor's role in this process?(236)

He or she I) listens rather than makes decisions or givesadvice; 2) clarifies what is said; 3) causes the Airman to bring out important points to better understand the situation;4) summarizes the discussion when appropriate; 5) avoids providing solutions or rendering opinions; 6) maintains a focus on individual and organizational goals and objectives;7) ensures the Airman's plan of action supports those goals and objectives.


What are the advantages of the nondirective counselingapproach? Its disadvantages? (236-Fig)

Advantages - it encourages maturity and open communicationand develops personal responsibility. Disadvantages - itis more time consuming and requires the greatest counselorskill.


Which counseling approach works best for simpleproblems, making on-the-spot corrections and correctingaspects of duty performance? (236)

The directive approach. (The leader does most of the talking,tells the Airman what to do and when to do it, and directs acourse of action.)


When should you use the directive counseling approach?(236)

When 1) time is short; 2) you alone know what to do; 3) the Airman needs guidance, is immature or insecure, or has limited problem-solving skills.


What are the advantages and disadvantages of thedirective counseling approach? (236-Fig)

Advantages - it is the quickest; good for people who need clear, concise direction; and allows counselors to actively use their experience. Disadvantages - it doesn't encourage Airmento be part of the solution; may treat symptoms, not problems; may discourage Airmen from talking freely; and thecounselor provides the solution instead of the Airman.


The __ counseling approach uses techniques fromthe directive and nondirective approaches and adjuststhem to the Airman's best interests. (236)



The combined counseling approach emphasizes theAirman's planning and decisionmaking responsibilities.How does this help the Airman? (236)

It helps him or her 1) develop a plan of action and analyzeeach possible solution to determine its good and bad points;2) fully understand all aspects of the situation to reach the best solution.


What are the advantages and disadvantages of thecombined counseling approach? (236-Fig)

Advantages - it is moderately quick, encourages maturity and open communication, and allows counselors to actively use their experience. Disadvantages - it may take too muchtime for some situations.


What are the four stages of the counseling process?(236)

1) Identifying the need for counseling; 2) preparing for counseling;3) conducting the counseling session;4) followup.


__ counseling may be necessary if you need focused, two-way communication to develop your Airmen.(236)



What six steps should be taken to prepare for successful counseling? (236-237)

1) Select a suitable place; 2) schedule the time; 3) notify theAirman well in advance; 4) organize pertinent information;5) plan the counseling approach; 6) establish the right atmosphere.


What should you look for when selecting a suitableplace for a counseling session? (237)

Choose an environment that minimizes interruptions and isfree from distractions.


What should you remember when scheduling thetime for a counseling session? (237)

The complexity of the issue determines the length of time required, but a session should not exceed one hour. (Schedule a second session if you need more time.)


Why should you notify Airmen well in advance of acounseling session? (237)

So they know why, where and when the session will take place. (Counseling for specific events should happen as close to the event as possible.)


Organize and review all pertinent information beforea counseling session, including the purpose of the counseling, facts and observations about the Airman, identification of possible problems, main points of discussion and the development of a plan of action. What should the counselor focus on? (237)

Specific and objective behaviors that the Airman must maintain or improve and a plan of action with clear, obtainable goals.


How should you plan your counseling approach?(237)

There are many approaches to counseling - select a strategy that suits your Airman and the situation.


The right counseling atmosphere promotes two-waycommunication between the leader and Airman. How can you establish a relaxed atmosphere? (237)

Offer the Airman a seat or something to drink and sit in a chair facing the Airman (since a desk can act as a barrier).


When the purpose of the counseling session is to give specific guidance or to reinforce the leader's rank, position and authority, should the atmosphere be informal or formal? (237)



Be __ when conducting a counseling session andtake advantage of naturally occurring events to provide Airmen with feedback. (237)



What are the four basic parts of a counseling session?(237)

1) Opening the session; 2) discussing the issues; 3) developing a plan of action;4) recording and closing the session.


What is the best way to open a counseling session?(237)

Clearly state its purpose. (Establish the preferred atmosphere early by inviting the Airman to speak.)


When conducting a counseling session, try to develop a mutual understanding of the issues. How can you best accomplish this? (237)

Let the Airman do most of the talking. (Use active listening; respond and question without dominating the conversation.)


What is your role as a counselor when the issue issubstandard performance? (237)

Clearly state how the performance specifically didn't meet the standard, then develop a plan of action.


When conducting the counseling session, a plan ofaction identifies a method for achieving a desired result.What should it specify? (237)

What the Airman must do to reach the goals set during thesession. (It must be specific and should show the Airmanhow to modify or maintain his or her behavior.)


As you close the counseling session, __ theagreed-upon plan of action and the Airman's accomplishments,improvements, personal preferences or problems.(237)



How should you close a counseling session? (237)

l) Summarize key points and ask if the Airman understands the plan of action; 2) invite the Airman to review the plan of action and expectations of the Airman; 3) establish any followup measures necessary to support successful plan implementation(provide the Airman with all necessary resourcesand time, periodically assess the plan and followthrough on referrals); 4) schedule any future meetings (at least tentatively) before dismissing the Airman.


Followup after the counseling session and continue tosupport Airmen as they implement the plan of action andevaluate the results. Observe and assess, then modify theplan if necessary. What measures should be taken aftercounseling? (237)

l) Followup counseling; 2) make referrals; 3) inform thechain of command; 4) take corrective measures.


When leveraging diversity, what challenge does thediversity of talents present to leaders? (238)

Incorporating everyone's specific talents into a cohesive andoptimal workforce.


When leveraging diversity, as a supervisor, you cannotcontrol the differing values within your organization.What can you control to create a culture that recognizesand appreciates differing perspectives and promotes respectand inclusion? (238)

Your leadership approach.


When leveraging diversity, leaders must form common ground or a shared set of assumptions within whichto communicate. What is this common ground? (238)

The organization itself - the vision, goals, rules, regulations,processes and procedures that govern how the unit accomplishesthe mission.


After forming a common ground, what must leadersdo to leverage diversity in their organization? (238)

Increase awareness of diversity, acknowledge differencesand eliminate stereotypes.


When leveraging diversity, use everyone's uniqueexperiences and background as a(n) __ . (238)



When leveraging diversity, what does diversity ofexperience and background ensure? (238)

Diverse ways oflooking at problems.


What results from properly managing workforcediversity? (238)

Higher productivity, improved performance, more creativity,more innovations and reduced stress.


Emphasizing diversity without threatening unity willstrengthen team bonds. How can leaders achieve this?(238)

By integrating sensitivity, mutual respect, common trust andcommunication.


To leverage diversity, your skills in what area aremost important? (238)

Personal relations.


Why is developing a full range of leadership potentialthroughout the workforce a principal Air Force initiative?(238)

Today's Air Force depends on highly effective Airmen whocan flexibly and capably operate throughout a spectrum ofleadership styles. Full Range Leadership Development(FRLD) combines the best parts of past leadership theories tomeet this need.


What are the three interdependent core elements ofthe Full Range Leadership Development (FRLD) system?(238)

1) The leader; 2) the follower; 3) the situation.


After considering the needs of the follower and thesituation, leaders must be willing to 1) develop relationshipswith leadership, peers and subordinates; 2) takeadvantage of available opportunities; and 3) use available resources efficiently. Identify three more requirements.(239)

4) Properly evaluate situations and follower performance; 5)reward appropriately and discipline accordingly; and 6) identify improvement areas in one's self, followers and workplace.


The Full Range Leadership Development (FRLD)model includes five leadership behaviors. Name them.(239-Fig, 239-240)

I) Laissez-Faire; 2) Management by Exception-Passive; 3) Management by Exception-Active; 4) Transactional Leadershipand Contingent Rewards; 5) TransformationalLeadership.


Which leadership behavior describes leaders whoview the development and needs of their subordinates assomeone else's concern, often displaying indifference andhesitation to make decisions? (239)



Which leadership behavior operates by the "If itain't broke, don't fix it" theory, intervening only whenpolicies or rules are broken? (239)

Management by Exception-Passive.


Why is the Management by Exception-Passive leadershipbehavior more effective than Laissez-Faire? (239)

Subordinates know that leadership will hold them accountableif they fail to meet performance standards or comply withpolicies and procedures.


Which leadership behavior ensures control by monitoringand governing subordinates through forced compliancewith rules, regulations and expectations for meetingperformance standards? (239)

Management by Exception-Active.


Management by Exception-Active is a leadershipsystem that uses detailed instructions, careful observationand active supervision. (239)

Structured. (This system reduces organizational uncertainties,avoids unnecessary risks and ensures important goalsare achieved.)


In the Transactional Leadership and ContingentRewards leadership style, what is the role between a 120 leader and his or her followers? (240)

The leader establishes a "contract" (transaction) to set goals,identify ways for the subordinate to reach the goals and supportsthe follower along the way. The follower then successfullyperforms the assigned tasks, meets the leader's expectationsand receives a reward.


Which leadership behavior inspires followers to exceedtheir goals and promotes positive, meaningfulchanges? (240)

Transformational Leadership. (These leaders offer followersa vision and inspire their mission.)


Identify the four components or "4 Is" of transformationalleadership. (240)

1) Individualized Consideration; 2) Intellectual Stimulation;3) Inspirational Motivation;4) Idealized Influence.


Which "4 Is" transformational leadership componentinvolves empathy and nurturing, where the leaderacts as mentor or coach? (240)

Individualized Consideration.


The transformational leader uses which "4 Is" componentto stimulate and encourage creativity and independentthinking among followers? (240)

Intellectual Stimulation, the "thinking" component.


Describe the behavior of a transformational leaderusing the Inspirational Motivation component. (240)

This "charming" leader develops and articulates his or hervisions of an appealing and inspiring future, which encouragesfollowers to put forth extra effort to achieve the leader'svision.


How do transformational leaders display the IdealizedInfluence (Influencing) component? (240)

They act as positive, charismatic role models who "walk thewalk" - exhibiting high levels of moral behavior, virtues,character strength and strong work ethic.


To develop the five leadership behaviors, you mustunderstand each one and know when to apply them. What else is critical? (240)

The flexibility and capability to implement each style, depending on the follower and the situation.