Flashcards in chapter-5 Deck (111):
Air Force members must understand how the AirForce Emergency Management (AFEM) Program dealswith what four events? (103)
I) Major accidents; 2) terrorist use of Chemical, Biological,Radiological, Nuclear, and High-Yield Explosive (CBRNE)material; 3) CBRNE enemy attack; and 4) natural disasters.
The Air Force Emergency Management (AFEM)Program describes the Air Force's approach to planning,organizing, training and equipping personnel, and protectingmission-critical infrastructures. How does it helpcommanders? (103)
It I) provides guidance to help develop an all-hazards approachto physical threats; and 2) captures the complete incidentresponse cycle from planning to response and recovery.
The Air Force Incident Management System(AFIMS) uses the installation Disaster Response Force(DRF) structure for all emergency responses. What doesit consist of? (103)
The crisis action team, Command Post (CP), EmergencyCommunications Center (ECC), Emergency Operations Center(EOC), Incident Commander (IC), first responders, emergencyresponders, Unit Control Centers (UCC), and specializedteams.
How does the Air Force Incident Management System(AFIMS) planning process help commanders? (103)
It enables them to achieve unity of effort, effectively useresources and identify shortfalls.
The Air Force Incident Management System(AFIMS) aligns Emergency Management (EM) planningand response with Homeland Security Presidential Directive5 (HSPD-5), Management of Domestic Incidents;the National Incident Management system (NIMS); andthe __ . (103)
National Response Framework (NRF).
The Air Force Incident Management System (AFIMS) provides fixed response options to organizefield-level operations for a broad spectrum of emergencies.T/F (103)
False. (Response options are scalable and flexible.)
The Air Force Incident Management System(AFIMS) provides a single, comprehensive approach tomanaging domestic incidents. It incorporates nationallevel and __ guidance while preserving the uniquemilitary requirements of the expeditionary Air Force.(103)
Office of the Secretary of Defense (OSD).
The Air Force Incident Management System(AFIMS) includes a set of concepts and principles. Whatsix areas does it cover? (103)
1) The Incident Command System; 2) Disaster ResponseForce (DRF); 3) common terminology; 4) common technologies;5) training; and 6) resource management.
What are the five phases of incident management?(103)
I) Prevention; 2) preparedness; 3) response; 4) recovery; and5) mitigation.
What is provided by the Air Force Incident ManagementSystem's (AFIMS) phases of incident management?(103)
The framework for the installation Disaster Response Force(DRF) to respond to Emergency Management (EM) incidentsand events.
The Air Force Incident Management System(AFIMS) conducts intelligence collection and analysis,active defense and safety mishap investigations in the__ phase of incident management. (104)
Prevention. (Other activities include proliferation, fire, diseaseand contamination prevention.)
What actions are included in the preparedness phaseof incident management? (104)
1) Planning; 2) training, exercises and evaluations; 3) identifyingaugmented manpower needs; and 4) reviewing ExpeditionarySupport Plans (ESP).
The __ phase of incident management includesdeploying the Disaster Response Force (DRF), executingthe Installation Emergency Management Plan (IEMP)10-2, and activating the installation notification andwarning system. (104)
The recovery phase of incident management includes,as a minimum, casualty treatment, UnexplodedOrdnance (UXO) sating, personnel decontamination,airfield damage repair and facility restoration. When dothese actions begin? (104)
As soon as possible (to sustain crucial missions and restorenormal operations).
The mitigation phase of incident management occursonly after all other phases are implemented. T/F (104)
False. (It is an ongoing process to reduce or eliminate risk orlessen the effects of an incident and is part of every phase.)
What incidents are categorized as major accidents?(104)
Incidents involving hazardous material, aircraft, ammunition,explosives, transportation, facility emergencies and industrialaccidents.
AFI __ defines a major accident as one involvingDoD materiel or DoD activities, and warranting responseby the installation Disaster Response Force (DRF). (104)
AFI 10-2501, Air Force Emergency Management (EM) ProgramPlanning and Operations.
A major accident involves one or more of what sixfactors? (104)
I) Hazardous substances such as radioactive materials, ToxicIndustrial Chemicals and Materials (TIC/TIM) and Chemical,Biological, Radiological, Nuclear, and High-Yield Explosive(CBRNE) weapons; 2) explosives; 3) Class A mishaps;4) extensive property damage; 5) grave risk of injury ordeath to installation personnel or the public; and/or 6) adversepublic reaction.
Which military operation will respond to a majoraccident, unless otherwise directed by the MAJCOM orthe Air Force Operations Center? (104)
The military installation nearest to the scene (regardless ofsize), known as the initial-response base.
After alerting others in the immediate area and reportinga major accident, what should witnesses to anaccident do? (104)
I) Stay uphill and upwind; 2) avoid inhaling fumes, smokeor vapors; 3) attempt to rescue and care for casualties; 4)avoid handling any material or component involved in the accident; and 5) evacuate the area ifrescue or containment isimpractical, or if directed to evacuate.
What must installations be prepared to do duringnatural disasters or severe weather? (105)
Adequately warn and notify personnel, as well as implementprotective measures and recovery operations.
In what ways do emergency conditions created bynatural disasters and severe weather vary widely? (105)
In scope, urgency and extent of damage.
The installation commander will provide emergencyresponse and recovery operations during natural disasters.Give some examples of natural disasters. (105)
Severe weather events (tornadoes, floods, storms, etc.), tsunamis,earthquakes, fires, volcanoes and disease outbreaks.
What actions should you take when a natural disasteror an incident affecting the base is imminent or inprogress? (105)
Listen for a 3- to 5-minute steady or wavering siren, keep theradio or television on and listen for instructions from localauthorities and weather updates, and use the telephone onlyfor emergencies.
What does a 3- to 5-minute steady tone on the sirenor a voice announcement indicate? What actions are requiredupon hearing it? (105-Fig-105-Note)
A disaster/incident affecting the base is imminent or in progress.Be aware, ensure all personnel are warned and followinstructions to take cover and evacuate or take shelter. Thesenior ranking person must conduct personnel accountability.
What does a 3- to 5-minute wavering tone on thesiren or a voice announcement indicate? What actionsare required upon hearing it? (105-Fig-105-Note)
An attack/hostile act is imminent or in progress. Be alert,ensure all personnel are warned, implement appropriate securitymeasures and follow instructions to take cover, evacuateor take shelter. The senior ranking person must conduct personnelaccountability.
How is the alarm signal "all clear" signaled? Whatdoes it mean? (105-Fig)
A voice announcement. The immediate disaster threat hasended or the attack is over.
What should personnel do once the alarm signal "allclear" has been signaled? (105-Fig)
Remain alert for secondary hazards, account for all personneland report fires, injuries, hazards and damage.
During wartime or combat operations, passive defenseare initiated according AFMAN 10-2503, Operationsin a Chemical, Biological, Radiological and HighYieldExplosive (CBRNE) Environment as the installationcommander directs. T/F (105-Note)
Each installation must develop plans and policies forresponding to natural and technological disasters. T/F(106)
What is the vehicle for installation preparation andresponse to natural and technological disasters? (106)
The Installation Emergency Management Plan (IEMP) 10-2.
All installations should address shelter planning incase a natural disaster occurs. T/F (106)
When it comes to sheltering personnel in the event ofa natural disaster, when may shelter-in-place proceduresbe required? (106)
In the event of a natural disaster, when the type or extent ofthe hazard is unknown or when evacuation would be dangerous.
Installation Emergency Management Plan (IEMP)staff will direct personnel to an installation shelter followinga natural disaster. T/F (106)
False. (Personnel need to know their shelter location andprocedures.)
What are three steps you can take to prepare for,and cope with, natural disasters? (106)
1) Take time to think, then act according to the situation; 2)prepare ahead; and 3) develop emergency plans to reduceinjury, loss oflife and property damage.
Who should you contact for guidance on preparingfor a natural disaster? (106)
The installation readiness and emergency management flight,or v1s1t the Air Force "Be Ready" website(http://www.beready.a£mil/), as well as the Air Force Portal.
37. What are four outcomes of chemical attack? (106)
It 1) achieves surprise; 2) can cause mass casualties that hinder the momentum of operations; 3) disrupts command, controland communications; and 4) degrades warfighting potential.
What Chemical, Biological, Radiological, and Nuclear(CBRN) threats can cause lethal, disabling, contagiousor noncontagious casualties? (106)
Nuclear threats within any theater of war only involvethe exchange of strategic nuclear weapons. T/F(106)
False. (They can exist without it.)
Widely available Toxic Industrial Materials (TIM)and Toxic Industrial Chemicals (TIC) are potential toolsfor____ attacks against air bases. (106)
Conventional attack threats only exist where threatsof Chemical, Biological, Radiological, and Nuclear(CBRN) attack exist. T/F (106)
False. (They may be present where CBRN threats do notexist.)
Give examples of conventional weapons. (106)
Rockets, mortars, missiles and bombs.
The first few moments of a conventional attack oftendetermine your survival. What are the most effectiveIndividual Protection Equipment (IPE) for a conventionalattack? (106)
The helmet and personal body armor.
What are the three phases of attack? (106-108)
1) Attack preparation (from now until hostilities begin); 2)attack response (attack is imminent or in progress); and 3)attack recovery (after or between attacks when the installationassesses damage and repairs mission-critical facilities).
What is the focus of each of the three phases of attack?(106)
Attack preparation begins before a potential attack. Attackresponse actions focus primarily on individual and weaponssystem survival. Attack recovery actions save lives, detectand mitigate hazards, and restore and sustain the mission.
What does the installation's Command and Control(C2) do during an attack? (106)
It implements operational plans and priorities, controls andmonitors mission-generation capabilities, and ensures installationsurvivability in conjunction with the Emergency OperationsCenter (EOC) and Unit Control Centers (UCC).
At what point do attack preparation actions begin? (106)
Upon receiving the warning order or when in-place forcesare directed to transition to wartime operations.
How do commanders recall people to their duty locationduring the attack preparation phase? (107)
With a recall roster (pyramid alerting system).
What must personnel know to take protective actionsin response to the base warning signals in all phases ofattack? (107)
The alarm color codes, audible signals and/or supplementalinformation.
At what levels and during what attack conditions arecontamination avoidance measures employed? (107)
At all levels and during all attack conditions.
Commanders implement threat-specific __ in theattack preparation phase. (107)
Mission-Oriented Protective Postures (MOPP).
Installations establish a network of Chemical, Biological,Radiological, and Nuclear (CBRN) rapid agentdetectors in the attack preparation phase. Where arethey placed? (107)
A variety of detection equipment is strategically placedthroughout the installation.
Why are air base sectors and zones determined forpassive defense? (107)
For rapid reconnaissance.
When do attack response actions occur? (107)
Immediately before and during an enemy attack.
Why do commanders declare alarm conditions duringattacks? (107)
To initiate passive defense actions.
Alarm condition green exists if you hear "alarmgreen" or see a green flag/transition sign, but don't heara siren. What does it indicate and what general actionsshould be taken? (107-Fig)
Attack is not probable. General actions include MissionOrientedProtective Posture (MOPP) 0 or as directed, normalwartime conditions, resuming operations, and continuingrecovery actions.
Alarm condition yellow exists if you hear "alarmyellow" or see a yellow flag/transition sign, but don't heara siren. What does it indicate and what general actionsshould be taken? (107-Fig)
Attack is probable in fewer than 30 minutes. General actionsinclude Mission-Oriented Protective Posture (MOPP) 2 or as directed, protecting and covering assets, and going to protectiveshelter or seeking overhead cover.
Alarm condition red exists if you hear "alarm red,"hear a wavering tone on the siren or see a redflag/transition sign. What does it indicate and what generalactions should be taken? (107-Fig)
Attack by indirect fire, air or missile is imminent or in progress.General actions include seeking immediate protectionwith overhead cover, Mission-Oriented Protective Posture(MOPP) 4 or as directed, and reporting observed attacks.
Alarm condition red exists if you hear "ground attack,"hear the call-to-arms on the bugle or see a redflag/transition sign. What does it indicate and what generalactions should be taken? (107-Fig)
Attack by ground forces is imminent or in progress. Generalactions include taking immediate cover, Mission-OrientedProtective Posture (MOPP) 4 or as directed, defending selfand position, and reporting activity.
Alarm condition black exists if you hear "alarmblack," hear a steady tone on the siren or see a blackflag/transition sign. What does it indicate and what generalactions should be taken? (107-Fig)
Attack is over and Chemical, Biological, Radiological, andNuclear (CBRN) contamination and/or Unexploded Ordnance(UXO) hazards are suspected or present. General actionsinclude Mission-Oriented Protective Posture (MOPP) 4or as directed, performing self-aid or buddy care, and remainingunder overhead cover or within shelter until directedotherwise.
In what ways may a base be attacked? (107)
By missiles, artillery, unmanned aircraft systems, aircraft andterrorist or ground forces.
Mission-Oriented Protective Posture (MOPP) levelsmay or may not be used in conjunction with alarm conditionsto quickly increase or decrease individual protectionagainst Chemical, Biological, Radiological, and Nuclear(CBRN) threats. T/F (108)
False. (They are always used in conjunction.)
What is the difference between alarm conditions andMission-Oriented Protective Posture (MOPP) levels?(108)
Alarm conditions initiate or limit individual and air basewidemovement and action. MOPP levels Jet individualsknow what to wear for minimum protection.
As Mission-Oriented Protective Posture (MOPP)levels increase, an individual's efficiency decreases. Whattool must be used to maintain consistent work levels andprevent heat-related casualties? (108)
Following an attack, you must leave cover to begin the recovery process immediately. T/F (108)
False. (Remain under cover until directed otherwise.)
What must you remember regarding Chemical, Biological,Radiological, Nuclear and High-Yield Explosive(CBRNE) reconnaissance? Why? (108)
"Every Airman is a detector." Because dedicated CBRNEpersonnel will not be able to accomplish all CBRNE reconnaissance.
The ___ will disseminate assessments of contaminatedhazard areas, Unexploded Ordnances (UXO) andcasualties and damage to installation forces and reportthe status of resources to higher headquarters after anattack. (108)
Emergency Operations Center (EOC).
Exposure to chemical-biological warfare agents onlyoccurs during an attack. T/F (108)
False. (It may also occur after an attack.)
What should you do during or after an attack to limitthe spread of chemical-biological contamination ifmovement is required? (108)
Use appropriate contamination control procedures as directedby the Emergency Operations Center (EOC).
How are critical resources such as aircraft, vehiclesand equipment protected from contamination during aChemical, Biological, Radiological, and Nuclear (CBRN)attack? (108)
Place them under cover in hangars, sheds or other structures,or cover them with plastic sheets or waterproof tarpaulinsbefore the attack. Windows, doors, etc., must be closed whennotified of a pending attack and kept closed until notifiedthat hazards no longer exist.
You should avoid kneeling, sitting or walking in contaminatedareas after a Chemical, Biological, Nuclearand High-Yield Explosive (CBRNE) attack, if possible.T/F (108)
True. (Don't touch anything unless absolutely necessary.)
What is the most effective method of chemical agentdecontamination from the skin? (108)
The Reactive Skin Decontamination Lotion (RSDL) andM295 individual decontamination kits.
In the absence of Reactive Skin DecontaminationLotion (RSDL) or M295 decontamination kits, whatshould you use to remove chemical agent contamination?(108)
5% chlorine bleach solution to remove it from equipment;0.5% solution to remove it from the skin. Irrigate the eyeswith water ifthe agent enters them.
Use Mission-Oriented Protective Posture (MOPP)__ during periods of increased alert when potentialChemical, Biological, Radiological, and Nuclear (CBRN)capability exists but there is no indication of CBRN use inthe immediate future. (109-Fig)
Mission-Oriented Protective Posture (MOPP) 0 is thenormal wartime Individual Protection Equipment (IPE)level when the enemy has Chemical, Biological, Radiological,and Nuclear (CBRN) capability. Which IPE is carriedand/or available for immediate donning? (109-Fig)
Keep IPE and personal body armor available for immediatedonning. Carry a protective mask with C2 canister or filterelement and wear field gear as directed.
During Mission-Oriented Protective Posture(MOPP) 1, wear the overgarment, field gear and personalbody armor; carry the overboots, protective mask andgloves. When is this MOPP level used? (109-Fig)
During periods of increased alert when a Chemical, Biological,Radiological, and Nuclear (CBRN) attack could occurwith little or no warning or when CBRN contamination issuspected or present and higher levels of protection are notrequired.
During Mission-Oriented Protective Posture(MOPP) 2, wear all protective equipment except themask and gloves, which are carried. When is this MOPPlevel used? (109-Fig)
During attack preparation or recovery; periods of increasedalert when Chemical, Biological, Radiological, and Nuclear(CBRN) attack could occur with little or no warning; whenthe commander determines a higher level of protection isneeded; and when personnel are crossing or operating inpreviously contaminated areas and respiratory protection isnot required.
During Mission-Oriented Protective Posture(MOPP) 3, wear all equipment except the gloves, whichare carried. When is this MOPP level used? (109-Fig)
During attack preparation or recovery; during periods ofincreased alert when Chemical, Biological, Radiological, andNuclear (CBRN) attack could occur with little or no warning;when the commander determines a higher level of protectionis needed; and when contamination is present and thehazard is a negligible contact or percutaneous vapor hazard.
During Mission-Oriented Protective Posture(MOPP) 4, wear all equipment. When is this MOPP levelused? (109-Fig)
During attack recovery; when a Chemical, Biological, Radiological,and Nuclear (CBRN) attack is imminent or in progress;when CBRN contamination is present or suspected;and when the maximum individual protection to personnel isneeded.
What information does AFI 10-2501 contain? AFMAN 10-2503? (109-Fig)
AFI 10-2501, Air Force Emergency Management (EM) ProgramPlanning and Operations, details the components andbasis of issue for Individual Protective Equipment (IPE).AFMAN 10-2503, Operations in a Chemical, Biological,Radiological, Nuclear and High-Yield Explosives (CBRNE)Environment, includes Mission-Oriented Protective Posture(MOPP) level options and standard operating procedures tooptimize their use.
When wearing a chemical protective overgarment,how should you wear specialized clothing such as wet andcold weather gear? (109-Fig)
Wear the specialized clothing over it.
What actions do you take if exposure to nerve agentsis possible? (110)
Nerve agent antidotes and pretreatments are issued duringincreased readiness, as well as Pyridostigmine Bromide Tablets(P-Tab) to be taken, if necessary, when directed by thecommander.
What are the benefits of collective protection in attacksituations? (110)
It provides rest and relief (breaks and sleeping), work relief(Command and Control (C2)), maintenance, supply, medicaltreatment) and protection of logistics storage areas (war andtheater reserve materiel storage sites).
What kind of approach is required for successfulbase recovery efforts after an attack? (108)
A coordinated and integrated approach.
Give three examples of Chemical, Biological, Radiological,and Nuclear (CBRN) passive defense actions.(110)
Any three of the following: 1) detecting and identifyingCBRN agents; 2) individual and collective protection equipment;3) medical response; 4) vaccines for chemical andbiological agents; and 5) CBRN decontamination capability.
What kind of forces are required to defend againstChemical, Biological, Radiological, and Nuclear (CBRN)attack and sustain operations in a CBRN environment?(110)
Knowledgeable and properly trained and equipped forcesthroughout the theater of operations.
What are the Chemical, Biological, Radiological, andNuclear (CBRN) passive defense elements? (110)
1) Contamination avoidance; 2) control; and 3) protection.
What is the purpose of contamination avoidance in aChemical, Biological, Radiological, and Nuclear (CBRN)environment? (110)
Prevent contamination to mission-essential resources and personnel.
List common Chemical, Biological, Radiological, andNuclear (CBRN) contamination avoidance measures.(110)
Covering and limiting entry to facilities; detecting, identifyingand predicting.
When Chemical, Biological, Radiological, and Nuclear(CBRN) contamination cannot be avoided, __ providesforces with survival measures necessary for operation.(110)
How is protection provided in a Chemical, Biological,Radiological, and Nuclear (CBRN) environment?(110)
Through individual protection, collective protection andhardening.
Collective protection and hardening provide protectionagainst multiple Chemical, Biological, Radiological,and Nuclear (CBRN) threats. T/F (110)
False. (They are threat specific.)
What measures comprise individual protection in aChemical, Biological, Radiological, and Nuclear (CBRN)environment? (110)
Use of Individual Protection Equipment (IPE), vaccinationsand prophylaxis, protective shelters, evacuation, relocation,exposure control, contamination control, and warning andnotification systems.
What determines which protection measures aretaken in a Chemical, Biological, Radiological, and Nuclear(CBRN) environment? (110)
The urgency and nature of the threat.
What directs the proper individual protective posturesin a Chemical, Biological, Radiological, and Nuclear(CBRN) environment? (110)
Command and theater-specific instructions.
What is the best immediate protective equipmentagainst chemical agents - regardless of the type of agent,concentration or method of attack? (110)
The Ground Crew Ensemble (GCE).
What is the Ground Crew Ensemble (GCE)? (110)
A whole-body system that defends the wearer against chemical-biological warfare agents, toxins and radiological particulates.
What are the Ground Crew Ensemble (GCE) components?(110)
A protective mask with filters, overgarments, protective gloves and footwear covers or overboots. It also includes MSand M9 detector paper, and Reactive Skin DecontaminationLotion (RSDL) and M295 decontamination kits.
Who issues nerve agent antidotes, pretreatment andPyridostigmine Bromide Tablets (P-tab) during increasedreadiness? (110)
What is the purpose of collective protection and conventionalhardening measures in a Chemical, Biological,Radiological, and Nuclear (CBRN) environment? (110)
To further enhance survival, limit attack damage and contamination,and support mission sustainment.
List three ways to expediently protect facilities in aChemical, Biological, Radiological, and Nuclear (CBRN)environment. (110)
Sandbags, salvaged culverts and steel drums filled withearth.
What passive defense attack actions do personnel notaffected by an attack take? (110)
Continue mission operations and remain vigilant within theirsector.
Base personnel use the most expedient means possibleand any means available (telephone, radios or runners)to report enemy ground attack information up thechain of command to the Unit Control Center (UCC) orEmergency Operations Center (EOC). What report formatwill they use? (110)
The S-A-L-U-T-E report.
What information is contained in the S-A-L-U-T-Ereport? (111-Tbl)
S(ize) - the number of persons and vehicles seen or the sizeof an object; A(ctivity) - description of enemy activity (assaulting,fleeing, observing, etc.); L(ocation) - where theenemy was sighted; U(nit) - distinctive signs, symbols oridentification on people, vehicles, aircraft or weapons;T(ime) - time the activity was observed; E(quipment) - allequipment and vehicles associated with the activity.
Air Force installations must prepare for a full rangeof terrorist threats, including use of Chemical, Biological,Radiological, Nuclear, and High-Yield Explosive(CBRNE) weapons. T/F (111)
____ is the calculated use or threat of unlawful violenceto instill fear, in order to coerce or intimidate governmentsor societies in pursuit of generally political,religious or ideological goals. (111)
What two factors greatly limit terrorist attack options,compelling more terrorist groups to use asymmetricmeasures to accomplish their goals? (111)
l) The absence of other dominating global powers; and 2)the overwhelming capability of the US armed forces.
Why is Chemical, Biological, Radiological, Nuclear,and High-Yield Explosive (CBRNE) terrorist threatplanning and response a high priority? (111)
Because Air Force personnel, equipment and facilities arehighly visible targets for terrorist attacks at home and abroad.
Who is responsible for the protection of installationpersonnel, facilities and resources? (111)
The installation commander.
Protective measures are taken in stages equal to theurgency and nature of the threat. These measures includeevacuation and exposure control. Name several otherprotective measures. (111)
Relocation, contamination control, warning and notification,and sheltering in place.