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Shaft Walls (purpose and rating criteria)

- enclose a multistory opening(i.e elevator shaft or duct work, conduits or pipes)
- rating depends on amount of floors its connected to


Shaft Walls (designed to ?)

- withstand air pressure and suction
- Prevent noise of elevator machinery


Fire Walls (meaning)

- Forms a required separation against spread of fire
- Extends continuously from foundation to roof, often above the roof and beyond the exterior walls along the plane of the wall
- Must be framed


Fire Wall (use)

- used to divide a single building into smaller fire compartments which may be considered separate buildings when calculating allowable heights and areas as per the code


Fire Wall Openings

- Openings in fire walls are restricted in size and aggregate area and must be closed with fire doors or fire-rated glass


Fire Barriers

- Used to restrict the spread of fire and smoke within a single building
- Unlike fire wall they are not required to extend from foundation to roof
- Fire barrier must extend from top of one floor slab to underside of another
- are used to limit the extent of fire areas


Fire Partitions

- Fire partitions may terminate at the underside of the suspended ceiling
- Fire partitions are used to enclose corridors and tenant spaces in small buildings or dwelling units


Fire Barriers and Partiition openings and structure

- Openings in fire barriers and partitions are restricted in size and must be closed with fire doors or fire-rated glass
- Structure supporting fire partitions and barriers must have appropriate fire resistance rating at least as much as the supported partitions


Smoke Barriers

- are special partitions required to separate occupants in case of fire in certain buildings like hospitals and prisons
- purpose of the wall barrier is to create an area of refuge within the building without the need for exiting
- have ratings and are continuous from one side of the building to the other and from top of the floor slab to the bottom of the floor slab above


Smoke Partitions

- are special partitions required to separate occupants in case of fire in certain buildings like hospitals and prisons
- A smoke partition is like a smoke barrier but does not need to have a fire resistance rating


Smoke barrier and partition opening

-Openings and penetrations have to be dealt with dampers, closures, and be tight fitting


Other Non Bearing Partitions

- Many of the partitions in a building do not need to be fire separation walls or to bear a structural load
These may be built with any materials with only the combustibility requirements and acoustic requirements from the code to be met


Wood Framing

- Generally dictated by building code where combustible construction is allowed
- Heavy timber and fire retardant treated wood are permitted in some instances


Metal Framing

- Light gauge steel studs with runner channels is most common and works similar to wood


Masonry Framing

Masonry can be used with wood or metal furring strips


Light Gauge Steel Frame

- Steel Studs are fastened to runner
- no fasteners needed for open truss wire studs



- For the installation of flat wall finish over an irregular masonry surface,
-Provides a concealed space for installing plumbing, wiring and thermal insulation


Furring can be created by commonly with...

-Z-furring channel (1)
- Hat shaped metal furring (2)
- Adjustable furring brackets (3)


Gypsum Boad

- a prefabricated plaster sheet material
4 feet wide by 8 to 14 feet long
- is also called gypsum wallboard
plasterboard, and drywall
- Least expensive requiring less labor than plaster
- Core of gypsum is slurry of calcined gypsum, starch, water, pregenerated foam, and additives sandwiched between special paper facing


Type X (gyp)

-Type X for fire rated assemblies consists of glass fibers in core


Type C (gyp)

Type C for fire rated assemblies but thinner than Type X


Water Resistant (gyp)

Water resistant gypsum backing board with facings of water repellant paper or glass matt and moisture resistant core


Abuse Resistant (gyp)

- Abuse resistant or impact resistant may have heavier facing paper, glass fiber mesh, polycarbonate film and core reinforced with cellulose fibers
- common in lobbies, restaurants, waiting rooms, classrooms etc.


Mold- Resistant

- Mold-resistant gypsum with alternates to paper facings



- Coreboard is 1 inch (25.4mm) thick panel used for shaft walls


Ceiling Gypsum Board

Ceiling gypsum board, sag resistant, ½ inch (13mm) thick


Foil-Backed Gypsum

- Foil-backed gypsum board eliminates the need for separate vapor retarder and also provide additional insulating value


Gyp Board Installation

- Can be installed over wood studs or steel studs
- Use of screws is (1) better than nails to avoid pops
- Installing long side horizontal results in a stronger wall frame
- Using large boards minimizes end joints which are difficult to finish
- Wall can be cut very easily by scoring with a knife (2 & 3)
- Where two layers are used joints are staggered
- Gypsum board can be curved (4 & 5)
- Metal trim accessories are installed at exposed edges and external corners to protect the brittle board and present a neat edge


Gyp Board Finishing

- Joints and holes are finished to create a monolithic surface
- Finishing uses joint compound/drying-tape joint compound or setting compound
- Joint compound is troweled into the tapered joint and in screw holes
- Reinforcing tape is bedded into the joint
- After drying more compound is applied to the joint to make it level
- The joints are sanded and very thin final coat is applied which is feathered out
- Wall is sanded to smooth rough edges and painted


Gyp Finishing Standards

- Level 0, minimum standard mostly unfinished - temporary
- Level 1 only joints are covered with tape set in joint compound – attics, service corridors
- Level 2 finish coat of joint compound is applied over accessories and fasteners – garages, warehouses, storage areas
- Level 3 adds a full second coat of compound after the first has dried - surfaces that will be textured or covered
- Level 4 is designed for surfaces to be finished with flat paints
- Level 5 is the highest quality and adds a very thin skim coat of joint compound over the entire surface of the board – surfaces that will receive gloss or semigloss paints


Demountable Partitions systems

- Demountable partition systems using concealed mechanical fasteners have been developed; ideal if space plans are changed frequently; first costs higher, but life-cycle costs are lower.


Frame studs

- stud is cut slightly short of the full floor-to-ceiling height. This allows deflection to occur in the slab above and top track, without loading the studs.
- The studs are fastened to the top track on one side only—a simple way to accommodate movement in the top track.


Shaft Wall Systems

- Walls around elevator shafts, stairways and mechanical chases can be made of any masonry, lath and plaster or gypsum panel assembly that meets the FRR requirements



that refers to any number of cement like substances applied to a surface in a paste form which hardens
applied directly to solid surface or any group of bases known as lath
Wattle and daub is the prehistoric type of plastering where wattle is the mesh and daub is mud which acts like plaster


Common Plaster Types

- Gypsum
- Lime and Portland cement


Plaster Systems consist of ...

-Plaster systems consists of plaster, frames and trims


Gypsum Plaster Characteristics

- Solubility in water
- Durability and light weight
- -Sound and fire resistance
- Highly workable
- Inexpensive


Two Categories of Plaster

- Base-coat plasters
- Finish-coat plasters


Base Coat Plaster

Base-coat plasters used for preparatory coats
- Mill mixed or ready mixed
- Neat
- More common types include: ordinary, wood-fibered, lightweight, high-strength


Finish Coat Plaster

- Finish-coat plasters are a blend of gypsum and lime
- Common types include: ready-mixed, gauging with hydrated finishing lime, high-strength gauging, Keenes cement, molding plaster


Portland Cement Plaster (Stucco)

- Used where plaster is subjected to moisture
- It is less workable than gypsum plaster
- It shrinks and therefore needs control joints frequently
- Exterior stucco is usually applied in three coats over metal lath or two coats over concrete or masonry


Plaster Application

- machine
- hand



- Lath is the base to which plaster is applied
- Wood lath made of thin strips of wood with spacing for keying was most common
- Most lath today is expanded metal of preformed gypsum
- Applied using ties of steel wire, self-drilling, self-tapping screws, lathing nails


Metal Lathe Types

Metal lath types include: (1) general purpose, (2) self-furring, (3) paper-back for use with ceramic tiles (4) 4-mesh Z-riblath for ceiling (5) thicker riblath for ceiling and wide space support


Gyp Lath

- 16x48 inches
- Consists of sheets of hardened gypsum plaster - - - faced with outer layers of a special absorbent paper
- Attaches using metal clips or screws
- Gauged gypsum-lime plaster or Portland cement stucco will not bond to gypsum lath


Veneer Plaster Base

- a paper-faced gypsum board
- Sheets are 4 feet
8 to 14 feet long
- Thickness of sheets ½ inch or 5/8 inch
- Trim accessories are referred to as ground


Plaster over Metal Lathe

- 3 coats
- Scratch Coats
- brown Coat
- Finish Coat
-total Thickness 5/8 inch
- Time Consuming and costly


Gyp Lath

3 Coats
- Gyp Lath
- Brown Coat
- Finish Coat
- More economical than metal Lathe
- 1/2 inch thick


Plaster Over Masonry

- Before applying plaster directly over concrete or masonry walls they should be dampened
- Bonding agent may have to be applied to smooth surfaces to ensure good adhesion
- Number of coats will be dependent on the degree of unevenness
- For best work three coats totaling 5/8 inch (16mm) should be applied but two coats are sufficient



- least expensive
- Veneer plaster base, then Veneer base
- dries rapidly and is ready for painting the following day


Masonry Partitions

- Historically interior partitions were often made of masonry. They had excellent STC and FRR (1)
- Concrete masonry partitions are used and often left unplastered and simply painted
- Electrical wiring is difficult to conceal and therefore a furred panel system may be applied or mounted on surface
- Glazed structural clay tiles make very durable partitions and are used areas with heavy wear and moisture problems or those with sanitation requirements (2)


Glass Block Partitions

- 4” nominal thickness, 6x6, 8x8, 12x12, 4x8 common face sizes
- Usually laid in stack bond with mortar and vertical & horizontal reinforcement within joints
- Good practice to provide expansion strips at tops & sides of glass block partitions
- Steel stiffeners required if partition exceeds max. height allowed by code
- Concealed panel anchors, rigidly attached to top & bottom framing can be used to eliminate intermediate vert. stiffeners


Light Gauge Steel Members are constructed how?

- Cold- form
- cold-forming increases strength
- essentially noncombustibe equivalents of wood light frame construction


C- Studs and Joist

Used as vertical studs, and horizontal joists, rafters, and headers
Standards sizes
Depth 1-5/8 to 12 in.
Width 1-1/4 to 2-1/2 in.
Metal thickness 18 to 97 mils (0.018 to 0.097 in.)


Stud Joist Designation [600S162-54]

- 600: 6.00 inches deep
- S: Stud or joist
- 162: 1.625 (1-5/8) inches wide
- 54: 54 mils (.054 inches) metal thickness



- Used at top and bottom of wall framing and at ends of floor framing, to hold studs or joists
- Analogous to wall plates and rim joists in light wood frame construction
- Standard sizes
- Depth to match studs or joists
- Width 1-1/4 to 2 in.


Track Designation [ 600T125-33]

- 6.00 inches deep
- Track
- 1.25 in. wide
- 33 mils metal thickness



- Used for bridging, blocking, and other reinforcing and bracing
- Also called cold-formed channels
- Standard sizes
- Depth ¾ to 2-1/2 in.
- Width ½ in.


Channel Designation [ 075U50-54 ]

- 0.75 in. deep
- U-channel
- 0.50 inches wide
- 54 mils metal thickness



- Used for bridging, backing, furring
- Also called hat channels
- Standard sizes
- Depth 7/8 or 1-1/2 in.
Width 1¼ in. at raised surface, 2½ in. at base


Furring Designation [ 087F125-30]

- 0.875 in. deep
- Furring channel
- 1.25 inches wide at raised surface
- 30 mils metal thickness


Framing Accessories

- Various sheet metal clips, stiffeners, bracing, and hangers are used to make connections and reinforce framing.


Slip Track

- Slip track: A top track with extra deep legs and slotted holes
- Allows fastening of nonloadbearing studs to track while permitting deflection in the track


Jamb Stud

- jamb-stud, a single, deeper framing member designed to replace two conventional studs at either side of a framed rough opening


Sheet Metal Thickness

- Thicker members are stronger and stiffer, but also heavier and more expensive.
- Thickness is traditionally expressed as metal gauge (or gage), with lower numbers corresponding to thicker metal


Fastening Light Gauge Sheet Metal

- Screws
- Crimping Tools
- Nail-like Pins
- Weld
- PLug Welds
- Slot welds
- Flare Vee weld


STC Rating

- sound transmission class;
- 25 normal speech heard clearly
- 30 loud speech can be understood
- 35 Loud speech not intelligible but heard
- 42-45 Loud speech can only be heard faintly
-46-50 Loud speech not audible other sounds other than speech can be heard faintly



American Society for Testing and Materials


Glass- Reinforced Gyp (GRG)

- high strength, high density gyp reinforced w/ cont. filament glass fibers
- used for decorative elements, such as column covers, arches, coffered ceiing, ornate molding, light trough, and trim