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Flashcards in Chapter 5 Glazing Deck (51):


is the installation of glass in framing. Glazing also refers to glass uses in the construction of a building.


Glass Ingredients

-Sand (silicone dioxide)
-Soda ash (sodium hydroxide or -sodium carbonate)
-Lime (calcium)
-Potassium oxide


Glass thickness

Thicknesses range from approximately 3/32 inch (single strength) to 1/8 inch (double strength) to 1 inch.


Annealed glass

Regular float glass which is cooled slowly to reduce in built stress


Tempered glass

Produced by cutting annealed glass to required size, reheating and then cooling rapidly. Higher strength and breaks into small shards. Specify horizontal tempering to avoid ‘tong marks’. Once tempered it cannot be cut.


Laminated glass

Sandwich of multiple layers of glass with PVB interlayer. Suitable for security applications as glass stays in place. Good for acoustical control; should be combined with tempered glass where high impact resistance is important


Fire-rated glass

Ceramic glass, gel-filled glass, tempered fire-protected glass; range from 30 minutes to 2 hours of protection


Wired glass

Mesh of wire embedded in glass. Used primarily in fire-rated opening assemblies in non-hazardous locations. Wired glass cannot be tempered


Figured/patterned glass

Produced by passing molten glass through rollers with pressed-in patterns


Float Glass

the most common types of glass produced, replaced plate glass. normally clear but can be tinted blue. bronze, grey or green.


Mirrored glass

Made by depositing thin film of metal/metallic oxide on glass; protective backing applied over film. Text says mechanical attachment required, but adhesives can be used in some circumstances, if properly applied


Patterned glass

Hot glass can be rolled into sheets with many different surface textures and patterns to obscure vision for privacy; one type is also known as cathedral glass


Fritted glass

Pigmented glass particles called frits are used to imprint glass. Glass is dried and fired in tempering furnace to make it permanent


Etched glass

Created by using acid or sandblasting to remove portion of glass surface


Stained glass

Produced by adding metal oxides during glass manufacturing. Often used in small pieces, set in lead/zinc ‘cames’; assembly then set in heavier frame. If used overhead, a tempered or laminated glass protective layer must be used below stained glass.


Hand-blown glass

Made by blowing a bubble of glass, then cutting & flattening as required. Irregularities due to process create unique patterns


Opalescent glass

Machine-formed by mixing one or more colors into glass; has marbleized appearance


Dichroic glass

Thin layers of metal oxides applied to glass surface; although clear, it filters & reflects certain colors, while allowing others to pass through the glass


Cast glass

Produced by pouring molten glass into a mold; mold is made by pressing positive model into specially prepared sand


Kiln-formed glass

Flat glass that is heated to cause it to sag over a mold; one side develops texture/relief, while other side remains smooth. Can be tempered, drilled, notched, and fitted into other building components


Bent Glass

Glass shaped while hot into cylindrical or other curved surfaces. Can be tempered, laminated, insulating, wire, or patterned glass


Decorative laminated glass

Laminated glass with interlayers of opaque/translucent colored film, wire mesh, rice paper, and other materials


Electrochromic glazing

Glazing that changes when electric current is applied; transforms from either dark tint or milky white to clear


Other specialty glazing

Mainly used on building exteriors; photochromic and thermochromic glass respond to light changes and temperature changes, respectively. UV and electromagnetic resisting glass also available


Interior glazing is not subject to excessive wind force or stresses due to thermal expansion, so member sizes can be smaller; in some cases, framing can be eliminated



Glass framing should have ___" min. shim space, and glass should be _____ than opening size to allow for movement & installation

¼" , smaller


Glass should be isolated from frame; setting blocks used in sill to avoid point load transmission to glass



Some text images show sealant/gaskets on only one side of glass; is this a good or bad practice? why?

-this is not good practice – better to have sealant/gasket on both sides of glass.
-Must have removable stop to provide for glass installation; usually secured with screws or finish nails


Steel (hollow-metal) framing

-Typically required for fire-rated openings or to match adjacent hollow-metal door framing
-16-18 gauge steel, bent into profiles; rounded corners
-Must have removable stop to provide for glass installation; usually secured with screws on inside (secure side) of glass


Aluminum framing

-Used where fire rating is not required
-Durable, easy to fabricate, compatible with aluminum door framing
-Frames are extruded – sharp corners
-Removable stop snaps into place – no visible fasteners


Frameless glazing

-Minimizes appearance of head, sill, & jamb framing; glass appears to float within opening
-Jamb framing often eliminated; glass held away from wall; sometimes open gap left where acoustic separation not critical


"double angle"

head, to allow for raising glass into place.


A Deep Channel can be used for what?

particularly where long expanse of glass occurs in gypsum board ceiling.


Glass thickness depends on?

the opening size, acceptable glass movement ("Shake"); ¼” min, 3/8” preferred


Laminated glass should be used when sound control desired; jambs should be sealed



When privacy is required, such as in a conference room, recessed blind/drape pockets can be created



Butt-joint glazing system

-Head and sill of the glass sheets are supported conventionally in metal frames, but vertical mullions are eliminated
-The vertical joints between sheets of glass are made by injection of clear silicone sealant
-There is a strong effect of unbroken horizontal band of glass around the building


Text indicates black silicone preferred vs. clear silicone, due to bubbles, objectionable appearance; designer should specify…..

installation shall be ‘free of bubbles’ in specifications document in order to achieve desirable result


Suspended Glazing Systems and Glass Mullion System

-Used primarily for high walls of glass around building lobbies
-Tempered glass sheets are suspended from above and stabilized by tempered glass perpendicular stiffeners
-Metal fittings are used to join multiple sheets of glass
-Stainless steel cables and fittings are used in roof applications


Suspended Glazing Systems and Glass Mullion System are typically used where?

This type of system typically used on building exterior, but can be used on interior, for very large glass surfaces



A suspended glazing system with "saddle" a curvature keeps the entire wall system in tension.


spider fittings and cable system must do what?

must resist wind, seismic, and dead loads without inducing bending forces in the glass or creating stress concentrations around the points of attachment


The glass wall obtains additional stiffness where the cable system is tied to adjacent columns.



Safety glazing is required where?

-Building codes require safety glazing in hazardous locations
-Swinging doors, fixed/sliding panels of sliding doors, panels in sliding & bi-fold closet doors
-Unframed swinging doors
-Doors & enclosures for hot tubs, whirlpools, saunas, steam rooms, bathtubs, and showers
-Guards & railings
-Panels within 36” of a walking surface, and within 18” of a floor
-Panels adjacent to doors, within 24” of door



-Verify maximum size that can be carried in elevators, stairways, doorways, etc.
-Specify horizontally tempered glass to avoid tong marks in glass
-Use same thickness glass for frameless sidelites at glass doors
-Consider marking full-height glass to avoid having people run into glass; graphics, translucent film, etc.
-When detailing/specifying window coverings, maintain sufficient clearance between window covering and exterior glazing to avoid heat buildup.


What is the most common interior glazing installation?

glass set in wood, steel or aluminum frame.


SPD Glazing:

uses a proprietary system in which light absorbing microscopic particles are dispersed within a liquid film.


Polymer-dispered liquid crystal film glazing:

fabricated by placing polymer film between 2 pieces of glass


2 types of glazing are very expensive but offer the potential for significant energy savings in the range of 20%-30%

Electrochromic glazing and SPD glazing.


what 2 glass types are considered safety glazing?

tempered and laminated glass


Safety Standard for Architectural Glazing Materials establishes 2 categories of glazing

Category I: material is tested using impact load of 150ft-lbf
Category II: tests impact load of 400ft-lbf. for hazardous locations grater than 9ft^2"category II must be used.