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thin coating used to protect surface to which it is applied. Coatings are composed of a vehicle (liquid part of coating) and the body or pigment (for opaque finishes).



composed of binder and solvent; solvent dissolves binder allowing application – solvent evaporates/dries, leaving binder


Solvent-Based Paint

Clear, solvent-based coatings: varnishes, shellac, silicone, urethane
Small amounts of pigment added create stain, used mostly on wood
Oil paints use drying/curing oil as binder; durable, but strong odor, cleanup requires solvents. Cannot be applied to damp surfaces, or surfaces that may become damp from behind


Water-Based Paint

Latex paints are water-based; acrylic binders better than vinyl for durability, hiding power, resistance to bleed-through. Low odor, interior/exterior use, thinned/cleanup with water


Epoxy Paint

Epoxy is a durable binder for corrosion/chemical resistance, abrasion resistance, adherence to concrete, metal, wood. Ventilation required during application due to noxious fumes


Polyurethane Paint

High-performance coating resistant to abrasion, grease, alcohol, water, and fuels. Used as clear covering for floors, wood, antigraffiti coatings; also used for very high gloss finish


Paint Gloss

Most paints available in varying glosses; gloss/semigloss used for washability, shiny appearance, but show surface defects. Satin finish provides dull luster, retains some washability. See Table 10.1 in text for other common finishes.


Environmental Considerations

Two major considerations: presence of lead-based paint (buildings completed before 1978), VOC content. Water-based paints usually have lower VOC contents. See chapter 21 for additional information.


Vinyl Wallcovering

Durable, abrasion resistant, easy to clean finish; can satisfy most flammability codes, available in wide variety of colors, patterns. Should be applied over primed wallboard whenever possible


Fabric Wallcovering

Some fabrics can be used as wallcovering, including wool, silk, and synthetics. Usually backed with paper to avoid glue damage, additional dimensional stability
Tuck joints are often used to give neater edges, conceal minor fabric delamination at edges
Alternative installation is the upholstered wall (Fig.10.2), where fabric is stretched over framing, and secured in place. Sometimes fiberglass batting is added, providing some sound absorption
When thick fiberglass batting is used, system becomes an acoustic panel


Acoustic Panels

When high degree of sound absorption is required, acoustic panels are used; at least 1” of sound absorbing material (or greater), permeable, loose-weave fabrics used as coverings
A proprietary system used for a private recording studio is shown below.


Wall Facings



Ceramic Facing

Ceramic tile facings are often added to the walls for reasons of appearance, durability, sanitation, or moisture resistance
Tiles can be mounted to gypsum base with adhesive and to concrete/masonry base with mortar with joints filled with grout


Stone Facing

Facings of granite, limestone, marble or slate are used in public areas of building
Commonly attached to wall with wire ties and plaster spots, which hold the stone in place and allow precise alignment before hardening


ceramic tile wallThin-Set Tile Method

Water-resistant gypsum board nailed to studs (dry locations)
Cementitious panel nailed to studs (wet locations)
Thin coating of dry-set or latex-portland cement mortar with latex-portland cement grout


Ceramic Tile Wall Full Mortar Bed Method

Most durable wall tile setting system
Thick bed of cured mortar used as tile base; tile applied using bond coat of dry-set or latex-portland cement mortar
Commonly used in commercial construction; if continuously wet, a waterproof membrane must be used
Full mortar bed installation may be done over metal/wood studs, masonry, concrete, as long as they can support weight of the system