Chapter 21 Flashcards Preview

CTech > Chapter 21 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 21 Deck (55):
1

Enviromental Impacts on Buildings

-30 to 40 percent of world’s energy use and associated greenhouse gasses
-One-third of U.S. energy use
-Two-thirds of U.S. electricity consumption
-30 percent of U.S. raw materials consumption, 25 percent of its harvested wood, and 12 percent of its fresh water
-Nearly one-half of U.S. greenhouse gas emissions

2

Sustainable Building Construction

-Reduce the depletion of fossil fuels
-Minimize the use of valuable, productive land
-Minimize materials consumption and waste
-Protect forests and forest ecosystems
-Protect water resources
-Minimize air pollution
-Maximize the healthfulness of the interior building environment

3

The Building Life Cycle

Sustainable building construction must address all phases of the life of a building material, that is, from cradle to grave.
-Origin, manufacturing, and transportation
-Construction
-Use and maintenance
-Demolition, and reuse or disposal

4

USGBC

U.S. Green Building Council

5

LEED

Leadership in Energy and Enviromental Design
-Existing Buildings LEED-EB
-Commercial Interiors LEED-CI
-Building core and shell construction LEED-CS
-Homes LEED-H
also Schools, Retail, Healthcare, Neighborhood Development

6

LEED-NC

LEED for New Construction and Major Renovations projects LEED-NC
-Sustainable Sites
-Water Efficiency
-Energy & Atmosphere
-Materials & Resources
-Indoor Environmental Quality
-Innovation & Design Process
-Regional Priority Credits

7

LEED Classification

Platinum: 80+ points
Gold: 60-79 points
Silver: 50-59 points
Certified: 40-49 points

8

Other Green Building Assesment Programs

-Green Building Initiative Green Globes
-National Association of Home Builders (NAHB)Green Home Building Guidelines
-NAHB and International Code Council National Green Building Standard

9

Energy Conservation Programs

-American Society of Heating, Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning: Advanced Energy Design Guides
-U.S. Environmental Protection Agency: Energy Star

10

Product Certificaton

-green Seal
- Greenguard
- Scientific Certification Systems
- ISO 14000

11

Green Seal

-American Society of Heating, Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning: Advanced Energy Design Guides
-U.S. Environmental Protection Agency: Energy Star

12

Greenguard

Tests indoor products for acceptable Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) guidelines & standards

13

Scientific Certification Systems

Tests biodegradability and recycled content; also certifies forests under Forest Certification Program

14

ISO 14000

Collection of standards & guidelines covering performance, product standards, labeling, environmental management, and life-cycle assessment

15

Life cycle Assessment

-Definition of goals/scope of study
-Inventory analysis
-Impact assessment
-Improvement analysis or interpretation

16

Criteria for Evaluating Building Materials

-Embodied Energy
-Renewable Materials
-Recycled Content
-Energy Efficiency
-Use of Local Materials
-Durability
-Low Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) Content
-Low Toxicity
-Moisture Resistance
-Water Conservation
-Maintainability
-Potential for Recycling
-Potential for Reuse

17

Philosophy on Salvaged Material

-Salvaged materials should be used as much as possible.
-Doors & windows
-Cabinetry, furnishings, and equipment
-May be extra costs involved with preparation for reuse, but cost savings may occur relative to new construction

18

Metals

-Large amounts of embodied energy, but highly recyclable
-Steel with 30% recycled content, aluminum with 20% readily available
-Electroplating very toxic; use powdercoating or allow natural weathering when possible

19

Reclaimed Wood

Wood salvaged from old buildings and prepared for new use
Ecologically sound, unique visual character

20

Sustainable or Alternative Materials

-Engineered wood products – laminated ‘I’ joists, laminated veneer lumber
-Particleboard & formaldehyde-free MDF
-Straw particleboard – made from wheat straw, rice straw, & sugar cane

21

Certified Wood Products

-Products that use wood from sustainable forest management practices
-Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) best known in North America

22

Plastic

Plastics used in interior projects should be marked for recycling.
-Compostable plastics specified if possible
-PET from soft-drink containers used to make carpet
-Bioplastics, like PLA made from corn, used in carpet
-Newer plastics, like metallocene polyolefins can replace PVC

23

Adhesives

Adhesives are a major cause of VOC contamination – low VOC adhesives:
-Dry adhesives containing resins activated by pressure
-Water-based adhesives containing latex or PVA
-Natural plant resin/water based adhesives

24

Carpet

Carpet – three major considerations for sustainability
-Raw material use – PET & Wool
-Raw material disposal – recycling difficult; some carpet tile manufacturers have recycling programs
-Indoor air quality – fusion bonding, needlepunch process
-Carpet Research Institute Green Label

25

Vinyl Flooring

Durable, easy cleaning, low cost
High levels of PVC; look for low-PVC content

26

Rubber Flooring

-Made from recycled tires; durable, slip-resistant
-Can give off pollutants

27

Linoleum

-Made from natural, renewable products
-Does not generate static electricity
-Use low-VOC adhesives to maintain good IAQ

28

Cork Flooring

-Highly renewable
-Imported from S. Europe
-Excellent sound absorber

29

Wood Flooring

-Specify FSC-Certified wood
-Veneered/laminated products available
-Use prefinished material when possible to avoid IAQ issues

30

Bamboo and Palm Wood Flooring

-Renewable materials; bamboo matures in 3-5 years
-Palm wood is byproduct of coconut farming

31

Ceramic Tile

-High embodied energy due to production/transportation
-Natural materials, very durable, no emissions, low maintenance
-Avoid epoxy-modified grout, plastic adhesives, use low-VOC sealers

32

Gyp Wall Board

-100% recycled paper covering
-7% of gypsum is synthetic; major source is power plant emission reduction processes
-Disposal problematic; not easily recycled

33

Sisal Wallcovering

-Natural material
-Fairly rough, not suitable for wet areas
-Must use low-VOC adhesives; allow for expansion/contraction

34

Paints and Coatings

-Major source of VOC’s, IAQ problems in buildings
-EPA sets maximum VOC content, CA has stricter standards
-LEED credit for compliance with Green Seal Standard GS-11; only 20% of VOC standard allowable by EPA

35

Ceilings

-Can be made from recycled materials; content can be 95%
-Cheaper to recycle than sending to landfill in many cases
-Grid is recyclable

36

Furnishing

-Reused/refurbished furniture
-Select furniture made from highly recyclable materials (steel, solid wood, glass)
-Specify reclaimed/FSC-certified wood construction
-Specify formaldehyde-free MDF or strawboard
-Specify PET or natural fibers, organic cotton fabric for cushions, workstations
-Specify biodegradable/nontoxic dyes
-Specify low-VOC finishes
-Specify powdercoating or naturally-finished metals
-Require cushions to be foamed with CO2-injected foam

37

Building Commissioning

-Process of inspecting, testing, starting up, and adjusting of building sysems & verifying proper operation
-Necessary for LEED credit; cannot done by members of design team to receive LEED certification

38

Mechanical Systems

-Specify conformance with ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1; required for LEED
-Specify mechanical system must not use CFC refrigerants; required for LEED
-Specify displacement ventilation (uses underfloor air supply/ceiling return) if possible

39

Electricty Use

-Reduce power use by ambient/task lighting, use daylighting strategies
-Specify automatic lighting/timers, submetering equipment when appropriate
-Specify daylight-responsive controls, energy-efficient appliances
-Specify high light reflectance finishes to improve daylighting

40

Plumbing

Specify low-flow fixtures & water use reduction strategies

41

IAQ

Indoor Air Quality

42

Two Types of Contaminents

-Chemical
- Biological

43

Chemical Contaminants

-Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC’s)
-Chemicals containing carbon, hydrogen, vaporize at room temperature
-Major sources of VOC’s are Paints, stains, adhesives, sealants, water repellants, particle board, furniture, upholstery, carpeting
-Formaldehyde – colorless gas with pungent odor; probable carcinogen found in resins & adhesives found in particleboard, wall paneling, MDF, furniture, carpet adhesives
-California Proposition 65 lists 76 chemicals that must be disclosed on products containing these compounds
-Greenguard Environmental Institute produces a list of products, chemicals, and maximum emission levels in order to be certified.

44

Biological Contaminents

-Mold, mildew, bacteria, viruses, mites, pollen, animal dander, dust, insects
-Mold & Mildew major causes of biological IAQ problems; only effective prevention is preventing/controlling moisture, limiting use of materials that provide nutrients

45

Causes of Poor Indoor Air Quality

-Chemical contaminants from indoor and outdoor sources
-Biological contaminants
-Poor ventilation

46

Symptoms of Poor Indoor Air Quality

-Sick Building Syndrome: symptoms disappear when occupants leave building
-Building-Related Illness: symptoms do not disappear after occupants leave bldg.
-Multiple Chemical Sensitivity: acute, long-term sensitivity to chemical exposure

47

Strategies for Maintaining Good Indoor Air Quality

-Eliminate/reduce pollution sources
-Control ventilation
-Establish good maintenance procedures
-Control occupant activity

48

Asbestos

-Naturally-occurring fibrous mineral
-Causes lung cancer, asbetosis, mesothelioma
-Exposure by friable (crumbled) or disturbed installation
-Must be tested/removed by certified, licensed contractors during demolition/renovation

49

Vermiculite

-Naturally-occurring mineral that resembles mica
-Expands by heating during processing; used as pour-in insulation, acoustic finishes, fire protection, sound-deadening compounds
-Some older installations may be contaminated with asbestos

50

Lead

-Highly toxic metal
-Used in paint prior to 1978, must be removed by certified, licensed contractor
-Most exterior uses phased out due to soil contamination; flashings, gutters, downspouts

51

Radon

-Colorless, odorless, tasteless radioactive gas
-Causes lung cancer; exposure by seepage through foundations

52

PCB's

-Mixtures of synthetic organic chemicals
-Carcinogens; most uses banned under Toxic Substances Control Act of 1976
-Once used in building transformers, fluorescent light transformers, paints, coatings, plastic/rubber products

53

Adaptive Reuse

-Reusing as much of existing building stock as possible
-LEED credit for maintaining 75% of existing structure/shell, excluding windows & nonstructural roofing
-Additional credit for maintaining 50% of non-shell areas
-At smaller scale, components such as heavy timbers, doors, bricks, etc.; LEED credit for using 5% and 10% of total building materials

54

Recycled Materials

-Recyclability: previously used material’s capability for use as resource in manufacture of a new product
-Difficult in many cases due to need to separate substances, often by hand

55

Building Disposal

-If old products and materials cannot be reused or recycled, they must be burned or placed in landfills.
-Biodegradable materials break down quickly & return to earth
-Aluminum, plastics, and steel do not decompose quickly
-LEED credit for diverting 50% of construction, demolition, and land-clearing debris to recycling or donation to charitable organizations
-Biobased products can be used to minimize disposal problems; adhesives, composite panels, gypsum wallboard substitutes, ceiling tiles, carpet backing are available
-LEED credit for rapidly renewable materials (made from plants harvested on 10-yr. cycle or less) if they compose 5% of total building materials