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Flashcards in Chapter 8 Deck (27):

Functions of Flooring

Impact on visual and tactile appreciation of building
Impact on acoustics
Interaction with light
Primary wearing surface


Features to consider

Skid resistance
Noise reduction
Electrical conductivity
Fire resistance rating
Structural loads


Performance Issues

Noise reduction

Skid resistance

Fire resistance


Noise reduction

Impact noise is transmitted as structureborne vibration through the materials of the floor to become airborne noise in room below

Many floor-ceiling assemblies are rated for STC and IIC


Strategies for dealing with impact noise in flooring

padded carpeting, cushioned resilient flooring, underlay with resilient material like cellulose fiber panels and nonwoven plastic filament matting, use airtight ceiling below with resilient clips


Skid resistance

Static Coefficient of Friction (SCOF) is used to measure skid resistance. A SCOF of 0.5 or more is desirable to minimize accidents caused by slipping
ADA recommends 0.6 for accessible routes, 0.8 for ramps


Fire resistance

Floor finish materials must meet code requirements with respect to resistance to ignition by radiant heat and flame spread


Wood Flooring

Wood is used in several different forms as finish flooring material


Solid wood tongue-and-groove strip flooring

made from many hardwood and softwood species. They are blind nailed in place


Plank flooring

solid wood flooring which comes in wider strips. They are fastened by screws which are countersunk and then plugged


Engineered wood flooring

refers to a factory made wood flooring of many different types


Parquet wood flooring

varying hues arranged in patterns


Floating floors

wood floors that are not nailed or glued


Plastic laminate flooring

composed of planks or large tiles that have wood composite core


Wood block flooring

made of small blocks of wood set in adhesive with their grain oriented vertically


Bamboo Flooring

A rapidly growing grass can be manufactured into flooring.
The flooring is produced as a laminate product with laminations either vertical or horizontal.
The flooring is more stable than flooring made of conventional wood.
It can be provided as a solid laminate strip or an engineered product.


Hard Flooring Materials

Hard flooring material are often chosen for their resistance to wear and moisture
They are not comfortable but are very beautiful and desirable



Can have many different finishes
Used for garages, industrial buildings, commercial and institutional buildings
Color can be added
It has low initial cost and high durability but requires proper workmanship



Many types with different surface textures are used in buildings
Installation is simple but requires high skill for bedding
Require clear sealer coating and periodic maintenance


Bricks and Brick Pavers

Both bricks and half thickness bricks called pavers are used for finish flooring
Bricks are laid with their largest surface horizontal or on edge
Decorative joint patterns can be designed


Quarry Tiles

They are large, fired clay tiles usually square but also available in other shapes
Thickness range from 3/8 inch to 1 inch (9mm to 25mm)
Usually set in reinforced mortar bed
Glazed or unglazed tile, usually larger than 6sq. in.
Made from natural clay or shale by extrusion


Ceramic Tiles

Fired clay tiles smaller than quarry tiles are called ceramic tiles.
Made from clay and other ceramic materials
They are usually glazed and available in many colors and shapes, but are also available unglazed
Grout color has a significant influence on the appearance of the surface
A slip sheet or cleavage membrane is used over substrate that are prone to deflection
Crack isolation membranes or uncoupling membranes are used in thin set application over problem areas


Ceramic Mosaic Tile

Formed by dust-pressed or extrusion method
¼”-3/8” thick, less than 6sq. in.



It is very durable and made by grinding and polishing concrete that consists of marble or granite chips
There are many different methods of installing terrazzo
Advantages include durability, water resistance, and wide variety of patterns/colors
Matrix usually white portland cement, sand, and water
Epoxy or polyester resin matrices used for thin-set applications
Usually finished with 80-grit stone grinder; concrete floors can also be finished in same manner – see image at right


Thin-Set Tile Method

Cementitious panel nailed to subfloor
Thin coating of dry-set or latex-portland cement mortar with latex-portland cement grout
Subfloor must be level, free from dirt


Full Mortar Bed Method

Tile and reinforced mortar bed separated from structural floor by cleavage membrane
Allows for movement, floor level variations


Underfloor Services – Raised Access Flooring

Raised access flooring is advantageous in buildings where wiring changes are frequent and unpredictable
Has virtually unlimited capability to meet future needs
Ductwork for air distribution (1) can also be designed to be carried in it allowing the ceiling to be exposed