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Flashcards in Chapter 4 Hardware Deck (52):

2 major categories of hardware?

Finish Hardware and Cabinet Hardware


Hardware Selection Criteria

-Opening Constraints (Door/frame type, size, frequency of use)

-Code Requirements (Fire-rated door hardware must be listed/certified)

-Accessibility (Must be usable by physically disabled)

-Security (Determines type & mounting of locks

-Appearance (Style/finish should be consistent with bldg./space design)

-Special Considerations (Lightproofing, radiation protection, acoustic control, concealed door design)


Door Mounting most common is the Standard hinge.

Consists of two leaves, with one or more knuckles per leaf. Joined by pin (either removable or non-removable) Knuckles and pin form hinge barrel


Special Hinges

-Raised barrel hinges – used when insufficient space for barrel to extend past door trim.

-Swing clear hinges – allow door to swing 90-95 degrees so full opening of doorway is available; standard hinges reduce doorway width by thickness of door


Selecting the hinges

-Determine hinge type (Dependent on door/frame type)

-Determine weight & bearing of hinge (Dependent on door weight, frequency of use

-Determine hinge size (Height x width, in inches)

-Determine number of hinges (Determined by door height)

-Determine base metal type

-Determine finish coating

-Determine tip design (See image for tip designs)


Three types of hinges

-standard weight:plain bearing
-standard weight :ball bearing
-heavy weight :ball bearing


Fire rated doors must use steel or stainless steel




used where hinge appearance objectionable, or for frameless doors
-May be center hung or offset
-Very tall doors require offset pivots, with one or more intermediate pivots
-Center hung pivots (usually) allow door to swing in either direction 180 degrees
-Can be used alone, or as part of a closer assembly
-Center hung pivots difficult to seal
-Center hung pivots usually mounted 2-3/4” from frame edge, but can be mounted anywhere, including center of door


Pocket & Sliding doors

-Pocket & sliding doors are suspended with rollers from tracks in the head frame
-Hardware is also available to allow doors to be supported on rollers that run on floor tracks – used for heavy doors or where movement of door bottom must be restricted


Special proprietary pocket pivot and continuous hinges are used for what?

available for use on fire-rated doors, while concealing much of the hardware.


A Latchset

is a device that operates a door and holds it in the closed position by means of a retractable latch


A lockset

does the same job, but also has a method for locking the door


Four types of latchses and locks:




most secure, most options; include deadbolt & latchbolt, both of which can be retracted in single operation
Grades 1-3; 1 is the highest level of operation.



(also called unit locks) – slid into notch in door; not frequently used



(also called cylindrical) – residential, small commercial use



cylindrical lock with interconnection, function similar to mortise


Closing Devices

Devices that automatically return a door to its closed position after opening.


Four major types of surface mounted closers, based on mounting, hardware location:

-regular arm
-slide track
-top jamb
-parallel arm


Two types of adjustable closers

50% adjustable and fully adjustable


Concealed closers

Can be concealed in door or frame, stronger anchorage provided by installation in frame


Pivot closers

-Incorporate both a pivot and a door closer in one mechanism

-Available for both center and offset-hung doors

-Can be mounted in floor or above door for center-hung doors; offset-hung doors require floor closers

-Heavy doors (over 200 lbs.) should use floor closers

-Usually mounted in concrete floors with cement case; can be installed in wood floors if sufficient anchorage


3 levels for Closer Grades & Size rating

Grade 1 to 3. Grade 1 is the most durable and is used for doors that have a high frequency of use and abuse.
-Closers are also rated by "size" 2 to 6: the higher the number the grater the closing force


Door Seals

Used along edges of doors to provide tight seals against smoke, light, and sound; made from neoprene, felt, metal, polyurethane, and vinyl


Smoke Seals

-Fire-rated seals required on fire doors to prevent smoke/draft passage
-Used on head & jamb sections


Light and sound seals

-Block light & sound
-Usually compressible neoprene
-Double-door seals used in critical locations, such as sound studios


2 types of Intumescent seals

-Expand upon heat exposure

-Hard-puff and soft-puff materials used in construction 500 degrees

-soft-puff used on doors – expansion at 250-300 degrees

-Elastomeric gaskets must be used in addition to intumescent seal to maintain seal below 300 degrees


Automatic door bottoms

-Used when door undercut requires sealing – light/sound seals, some fire doors
-Activates when door is closed
-Requires solid, smooth floor or threshold to provide seal



:lock component with end that extends from lock by action of lock mechanism.
-Most codes limit use to residential, hotel use – must have thumb turn on interior


Locksets – four types discussed previously

-Bored locksets sufficient for residential, small commercial projects

-Mortise and interconnected locks provide greater security, greater functional range for most other projects


Flush bolts

devices mortised into door edge allowing bolt to extend into head frame/floor by manual lever operation

-Used on pairs of doors so inactive leaf can be locked, providing fixed strike for active leaf locking

-Prohibited on exit doors and many other doors by building codes

-Automatic flush bolts may be used on exit doors



Keying refers to a system of matching keys to specific locks and door openings and determining which key will operate which lock.


Construction keys

often used during construction, temporarily operates all locks until permanent keying system is established – prevents construction crew from having functioning keys after construction is completed



prevent active leaf in double door pair from closing first, which would prevent proper closing of inactive leaf


Door stops and bumpers

prevent door & attached hardware from impacting wall & adjacent construction. Can be wall or floor mounted; many designs available



used at floor material changes at doors & when using automatic door bottom seals



vertical members used between double doors to seal opening, act as door stop, or to provide extra security. May be attached to active leaf, or be separate unit against which both doors close. If overlapping astragal is used on fire doors, coordinator is also required.


Protective coverings

metal plates attached to door surface to protect against damage. Text mentions use on wood doors; can also be used on other door materials


Door Bolders

text describes overhead holders which hold doors open until manual release; these cannot be used on fire rated doors. Magnetic door holders can be used, as described below.


Electronic hardware

hardware includes devices that control or monitor door openings using electronic or electromechanical means.


Electric locks

maintain locksets in locked position until a signal activated by a regulating device; switches, computer controls, timing devices, security consoles are examples of regulating devices


Electric bolts

separate from door operating hardware. Activated similar to electric locks. Not allowed on most exit doors due to inability to override in emergency if device fails to operate


Card readers

regulating device that reads magnetic strip on card to operate electric locks; very flexible, allowing monitoring & time of day access control


Key pad devices

are another type of regulating device; coded number input to device to gain access. Sometimes used in coordination with card readers.


Magnetic hold-open devices

can be used to keep exit doors in open position until activated by smoke detector or other fire signal; also activated by power failure


Delayed-exit devices

resemble standard exit (panic) hardware, but designed to stay locked for 15-30 seconds after bar depression. During this time, alarm sounds to allow response to unauthorized door opening. In actual emergency, delay deactivated


Four most common base metals for hardware

steel, stainless steel, bronze, brass (Category A finish)


Fire-rated doors require steel or stainless steel base metal



Plated finishes can wear off over time; in many cases, best to use same base/finish metals
– plating processes very toxic to environment



Some finishes, such as oil-rubbed bronze, will change color with use; this may be desirable or not, but should be considered during selection

True, Finish category B


Materials and Finishes (ABSI/BHMA A156)

Establishes 5 categories of finishes
-A: such as chrome,brass, and stainless steel offer highest potential for consistency in appearance
B: unstable
-C: finishes are hand applied
-D: for protective applications only
-E: intended to be match with comparable finishes from Categories A,B,C


Mounting Heights per ANSI/ICC standards

door levers, deadbolts, and pushplates/pulls must be placed at 34” min., 48” max. height; anywhere in this range is acceptable.