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Flashcards in Chapter 9 Deck (33):
1

Carpet

Carpets are manufactured in many different types of fibers, styles and patterns for indoor or outdoor use
Carpets are tough enough to wear for years or soft enough for intimate interiors
Majority of carpet in North America is made with nylon fibers with remainder being made from polypropylene, synthetics and natural fibers

2

Four ways to install carpet

Direct glue-down installation
With carpet pad or cushion and tackless strip at edges (stretch-in installation)
Double glue-down installation
Attached cushion installation

3

Carpet Fibers

Wool

Nylon

Acrylic

Polyester

Olefin

4

Wool

Natural material; one of the best materials for carpet
Durable, resilient, long-wearing, flame-resistant
First cost very high

5

Nylon

Economical, strong, wear-resistant
High stain resistance, excellent crush resistance, easily dyed, cleaned
Most widely used fiber

6

Acrylic

Moderate abrasion resistance
More wool-like appearance than nylon
Easily dyed, good crush resistance, easy maintenance, fade resistant

7

Polyester

Made from synthetic polymers
Highly abrasion resistant, cleans well, low cost
Fair crush resistance

8

Olefin

Also known as polypropylene
Used primarily for indoor-outdoor carpet
Strong, durable, stain-resistant, cleans easily
Least attractive, low resilience, low melting point

9

Carpet Manufacturing Processes

Weaving

Tufting

Needle Punching

Fusion Bonding

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Weaving

Traditional method of making carpet
Warp yarn runs lengthwise, weft runs crosswise
Produces attractive, durable, expensive carpet
Wilton is heaviest, most expensive weave
Velvets usually solid colors, variety of textures

11

Tufting

Pile yarn is punched through backing with row of needles similar to sewing machine
25 times faster than weaving, lower cost – majority of carpet manufactured today

12

Needle Punching

Similar to tufting, except fiber is pushed & pulled through backing with barbed needles, then secondary backing applied
Produces flat carpet with limited variation
Accounts for small percentage of market

13

Fusion Bonding

Embeds pile yarn in liquid vinyl backing; vinyl hardens, locking fibers in place
Texture/patterns limited
Used primarily for carpet tiles

14

Carpet Properties

Appearance & Durability

Carpet Flammability

Carpet Backing & Cushioning

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Appearance & Durability

Shorter and more tightly packed fibers result in more durable, expensive carpet

16

Carpet Flammability

All carpet sold in USA required to resist ignition and spreading fire
Building codes regulate flame-spread ratings of interior materials

17

Carpet Backing & Cushioning

Backing provides support & locks pile yarn in place
Cushion/padding is not appropriate for glue-down carpet
Recommended; increases carpet life, resiliency, comfort, improves sound absorption, reduces impact noise

18

Carpet Installation

Three installation methods
Direct glue-down
Stretched-in
Double glue-down

19

Direct glue-down

carpet attached to floor with adhesive – resists shifting, supports wheeled traffic, faster/cheaper. Shorter lifespan, harder underfoot. Requires low-pile carpet

20

Stretched-in

uses tackless strips around perimeter, carpet stretched against strips

21

Double glue-down

cushion glued to subfloor, then carpet glued to cushion. Combines some advantages of stretched, direct glue-down carpets

22

Carpet Tiles

Individual pieces of carpet, typically 18”sq. applied to floor with pressure-sensitive adhesive
Damaged or worn squares easily removed/replaced without removing entire floorcovering
Often used on raised access flooring & where undercarpet electrical/telecom cabling used

23

Underfloor Services – Undercarpet Wiring

Undercarpet wiring systems that use flat conductors are appropriate in many buildings for both electrical power and communications wiring
They may be useful in new and retrofit situations
Flat conductors (1) lie underneath the carpet and are accessed through projecting boxes (2)
Conductors are connected by splicing as necessary

24

Resilient Flooring

The oldest resilient flooring is linoleum – a sheet material made of ground cork

Today’s market resilient sheet flooring and tile market is made of vinyl or rubber

They are available in wide range of colors and have good durability with low initial cost

Vinyl composition tile (VCT) has the lowest installed cost. Other tile products include solid vinyl tile (SVT) and rubber floor tile
Resilient sheet flooring materials are vinyl and rubber
Most resilient flooring is glued to the substrate sometimes using underlayment

25

Vinyl Flooring

Durable, easy cleaning, low cost
High levels of PVC; look for low-PVC content

26

Rubber Flooring

Made from recycled tires; durable, slip-resistant
Can give off pollutants

27

Linoleum

Made from natural, renewable products
Does not generate static electricity
Use low-VOC adhesives to maintain good IAQ

28

Cork Flooring

Highly renewable
Imported from S. Europe
Excellent sound absorber

29

Wood Finishes

Specify FSC-Certified wood
Veneered/laminated products available
Use prefinished material when possible to avoid IAQ issues

30

Bamboo and Palm Wood Flooring

Renewable materials; bamboo matures in 3-5 years
Palm wood is byproduct of coconut farming

31

Ceramic Tile

High embodied energy due to production/transportation
Natural materials, very durable, no emissions, low maintenance
Avoid epoxy-modified grout, plastic adhesives, use low-VOC sealers

32

Flooring Thicknesses

Thicknesses of floor finishes can vary widely
When material of different thicknesses are used on the same floor there can be problems

33

resolving thicknesses

These can be resolved by
Tapered edgings
Thresholds
Variations in thickness of underlayment
Use of gypsum or cementitious self leveling toppings
Sometimes special structural details may need to be considered during design stage