Flashcards in Chapter 1 Deck (28):
What is microbiology?
The science that studies microorganisms too tiny to be seen by the naked eye & their impact on other organisms.
What is a pathogen?
A microorganism (bacteria, virus, fungi) that causes disease or death
What causes infectious diseases?
What is normal flora?
Organisms that inhabit our body. Can live on skin or inside body. Benificial.
Are the majority of microorganisms beneficial or harmful to humans?
List 5 ways microorganisms are beneficial to humans.
-part of the normal flora.
-decompose organic waste.
-are producers in the ecosystem by photosynthesis.
-play major role in recycling essential elements.
-produce ethanol, acetone, vinegar, cheese, bread, indigo, insulin.
How is malaria transmitted?
When were the first microbes observed? What year?
Who was the first to observe cells?
Who developed the first vaccine against smallpox?
Who was the first to observe microorganisms? Explain.
Anton van Leeuwenhoek.
Dutch merchant and lens grinder. Made and observed through simple microscopes. Reported his observations to the Royal Society.
Disproved spontaneous generation. Demonstrated that microorganisms are present in the air with S-shaped flask.
First to use disinfectants in surgical procedures.
Proved that DNA is hereditary material and provided the experimental steps.
Discovered the first antibiotic penicillin.
What is biogenesis?
The hypothesis that the living organisms arise from preexisting life.
What is the hypotheical process that life could arise from nonliving matter?
What is cell theory?
1) Every living organism consists of one or more cells
2) cell is fundamental unit of life
3) cells come from pre-existing cells
4) cells contain hereditary material that is passed on to offspring
Who devised the method for the naming of microorganisms?
-Fungi, protozoa, algae, and helminths.
-Bacteria and archae
Microorganism that has a true nucleated cell
Proposed Spontaneous generation
Challenged theory of spontaneous generation. Experiment used meat and flasks. Unsealed flask with meat, sealed flask with meat, and unsealed flask covered with gauze and meat.
Challenged theory of spontaneous generation. Experiment used boiled nutrient broth into covered flasks. Broth heated then planed in sealed flask. Resulted in microbial growth.
Challenged theory of spontaneous generation. Experiment used boiled nutrient broth into covered flasks. Nutrient broth placed in flask, sealed, and then heated. Result no microbial growth.
The use of microbes to clean environmental pollutants.