Chapter 13 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 13 Deck (37):
1

Are viruses cellular or acellular?

Acellular. Do not have a cell membrane

2

Infectious proteins

Prions

3

Have either RNA or DNA

Viruses

4

A submicroscopic, parasitic, filterable agent consisting of a nucleic acid surrounding by a protein coat.

Virus

5

Viruses that infect bacteria

Bacteriophages

6

Proved that bacteriophages are essential for the growth of bacteria and microscopic plankton.

Bratbak

7

Determined that each bacterium can only be infected with a specific type of phage.

Felix Twort and Flix d'Herelle

8

1918 spanish flu pandemic. Affected young adults.

Influenza

9

Affected FDR (President). Citiy officials responded with methods used to successfully rid of other epidemics. None worked. Spread by human feces. Vaccine declared safe in 1955.

Polio

10

Incubation period of 2-21 days. Humans not infectious until they develop symptoms. (VERY like symptoms to other illness.) Internal and external bleeding.

Ebola

11

Nonliving characteristics of viruses

-Acellular
-Carryout no metabolism of their own
-Poses either DNA or RNA

12

Living characteristics of viruses

-Reproduce at a very high rate
-Mutate

13

Are viruses bigger or smaller than bacteria?

Smaller

14

Extracellular state of a virus. Also known as complete.

Virion

15

How are viruses distinguished?

-Type of genetic material they contain.
-Type of cells they attack.
-Size of virus.
-Nature of capsid coat.
-Shape of virus.
-If it has a envelope or not.

16

What kind of DNA and RNA is found in viruses?

Double stranded and single stranded. Single or segmented pieces of nucleic acid. Strands can be positive or negative. DNA goes to nucleus. RNA goes to cytoplasm.

17

Virus effects helper T cells. Causes a compromised immune system.

HIV

18

Protein coats that provide protection for viral nucleic acid and attachment to host's cells.

Capsids

19

Units of capsids

Capsomere

20

Are spikes viral coded?

Yes

21

Where to RNA viruses replicate?

Cytoplasm

22

Where do DNA viruses replicate?

Nucleus

23

Steps of Lytic phase of bacteriophages.

Attachment
Penetration
Synthesis
Assemply
Release

24

Participate in lysogenic cycle

Temperate (Lamda)

25

How do bacteriophages attach?

Tail fibers

26

How do Animal viruses attach?

Spikes and capsids

27

How do bacteriophages penetrate?

Inject DNA

28

How do animal viruses penetrate?

Inject DNA, endocytosis

29

Sites of synthesis assembly of bacteriophages?

Cytoplasm (Do not have a nucleus)

30

Site of synthesis assembly of Animal viruses

DNA- Nucleus
RNA- Cytoplasm

31

Release state of Bacteriophages

Lytic

32

Release state of Animal viruses

Lytic, budding out

33

How are viruses grown in a lab?

-In whole organisms
-In Cell cultures

34

What is a plaque on a plate?

Places where bacteria have died.

35

Infectious protein. No nucleic acid.

Prion

36

Incubation period for Prion diseases?

20-50 years.

37

How are prions deactivated?

Incineration and autoclave at 134 celcius for 4 hours.