Flashcards in Chapter 13 Deck (37):
Are viruses cellular or acellular?
Acellular. Do not have a cell membrane
Have either RNA or DNA
A submicroscopic, parasitic, filterable agent consisting of a nucleic acid surrounding by a protein coat.
Viruses that infect bacteria
Proved that bacteriophages are essential for the growth of bacteria and microscopic plankton.
Determined that each bacterium can only be infected with a specific type of phage.
Felix Twort and Flix d'Herelle
1918 spanish flu pandemic. Affected young adults.
Affected FDR (President). Citiy officials responded with methods used to successfully rid of other epidemics. None worked. Spread by human feces. Vaccine declared safe in 1955.
Incubation period of 2-21 days. Humans not infectious until they develop symptoms. (VERY like symptoms to other illness.) Internal and external bleeding.
Nonliving characteristics of viruses
-Carryout no metabolism of their own
-Poses either DNA or RNA
Living characteristics of viruses
-Reproduce at a very high rate
Are viruses bigger or smaller than bacteria?
Extracellular state of a virus. Also known as complete.
How are viruses distinguished?
-Type of genetic material they contain.
-Type of cells they attack.
-Size of virus.
-Nature of capsid coat.
-Shape of virus.
-If it has a envelope or not.
What kind of DNA and RNA is found in viruses?
Double stranded and single stranded. Single or segmented pieces of nucleic acid. Strands can be positive or negative. DNA goes to nucleus. RNA goes to cytoplasm.
Virus effects helper T cells. Causes a compromised immune system.
Protein coats that provide protection for viral nucleic acid and attachment to host's cells.
Units of capsids
Are spikes viral coded?
Where to RNA viruses replicate?
Where do DNA viruses replicate?
Steps of Lytic phase of bacteriophages.
Participate in lysogenic cycle
How do bacteriophages attach?
How do Animal viruses attach?
Spikes and capsids
How do bacteriophages penetrate?
How do animal viruses penetrate?
Inject DNA, endocytosis
Sites of synthesis assembly of bacteriophages?
Cytoplasm (Do not have a nucleus)
Site of synthesis assembly of Animal viruses
Release state of Bacteriophages
Release state of Animal viruses
Lytic, budding out
How are viruses grown in a lab?
-In whole organisms
-In Cell cultures
What is a plaque on a plate?
Places where bacteria have died.
Infectious protein. No nucleic acid.
Incubation period for Prion diseases?