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Flashcards in Exam 1 Deck (51):
0

Proved hand washing beneficial?

Semmelweis

1

Made first vaccination

Jenner

2

Disproved the theory of spontaneous generation with bent test tubes

Pasteur

3

DNA neucleotides

- deoxyribose
- sugar
-phosphate
-nitrogen base

4

DNA pairs

A-T
C-G

No proteins!!!

5

Do lipids have monomers?

No

6

What are the functions of lipids?

-energy
-cell membrane (phospolipids)
-deoxyribose
-ribose

7

Do carbohydrates have monomers?

Yes monosaccharides

8

Function of carbohydrates?

-energy
-cell wall (peptidoglycan)
-deoxyribose
-ribose

9

Assume E. coli is grown in a nutrient medium containing the radioisotope 16N. After a 48-hour incubation period the 16N would most likely be found in the E. coli's __.

proteins

10

The electrons located on the outermost shell of an atom are known as the __ electrons.

Valence

11

One isotope of iodine differs from another in __

Number of Neutrons

12

If Pseudomonas bacteria are supplied with radioactively labeled adenine, after a 24-hour incubation period this adenine would more likely be found in the cell's __.

DNA

13

Which of the following are the “building blocks” or monomers of proteins?
a) nucleotides
b) peptides
c) amino acids
d) fatty acids

Amino Acids`

14

Which of the following nitrogenous bases is NOT found in an RNA molecule?
a)uracil
b) guanina
c) thymine
d) adenine

Thymine

15

A bond formed from the attraction between ions of opposite charge is called a(n)__.

Ionic Charge

16

Water has an unequal distribution of charges and is called a(n) __.

Polar Molecule

17

In a synthesis reaction, __.

atoms, ions, or molecules are combined to form a larger molecule.

18

You are observing a Gram stain of spherical-shaped microorganisms that are linked in a chain and stain purple. How would you describe these bacteria using the correct terminology for the cell shape and arrangement?

gram positive streptococci

19

Which of the following statements accurately describes specific bacterial cell walls?
a) Gram-negative bacterial cell walls contain teichoic acids, whereas the cell walls of gram-positive bacteria do not.
b) In bacteria with acid-fast cell walls, the carboxylic acid in the walls forms a layer outside a thin layer of hydrophilic polypeptides.
c) The cell walls of gram-negative bacteria contain many more layers of peptidoglycan than those of gram-positive bacteria.
d) In gram-negative bacteria, the thin layer of peptidoglycan is surrounded by an external membrane made of phospholipids, lipopolysaccharides, and proteins.

In gram-negative bacteria, the thin layer of peptidoglycan is surrounded by an external membrane made of phospholipids, lipopolysaccharides, and proteins.

20

Which of the following is found in the cytoplasm of prokaryotic cells but is ABSENT from the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells?
a) Enzymes
b) Cytoskeleton
c) Water
d) DNA

DNA

21

Which of the following types of bacterial cells would have flagella located at only one end of the cell?
a) peritrichious
b) monotrichious
c) monotrichious and lophotrichious
d) amphitrichious
e) lophotrichious

monotrichious and lophotrichious

22

Which of the following molecules is shared by both Gram-positive and Gram-negative organisms?
a)lipopolysaccharid
b) N-acetylmuramic acid
c) lipid A
d) lipoteichoic acids

N-acetylmuramic acid

23

Which structural feature of Gram-positive bacteria enhances their ability to retain the crystal violet dye?
a) an endotoxin
b) a thick layer of peptidoglycan
c) a thin layer of peptidoglycan
d) an outer membrane

a thick layer of peptidoglycan

24

What is the role of iodine in the Gram stain process?

Iodine is a mordant in the Gram stain technique, which functions to intensify the primary stain.

25

The acid-fast technique is an important diagnostic tool in patients who have __.

TB

26

What is the function and chemical composition of flagella?

movement, protein

27

Do Proteins have monomers?

Yes, Amino Acids

28

What is the function of protein?

Structure
Transport
Enzymes
Toxins

29

Do Neucleic acids have monomers?

Yes, Nucleotides

30

What is ATP?

Adenosine Triphosphate
-Energy

31

Arrangements viewed in stains?

-Singles
-Strepto (chain)
-Diplo (2)
-Tetrad (4)
-Sarcina (8)
-Staphyl (cluster)

32

Peptidoglycan in a gram positive stain?

Thick Peptidoglycan

33

Peptidoglycan in a gram negative stain?

Thin Peptidoglycan

34

Reagents of gram stains

ORDER
-Crystal violet (Primary)
-Iodine
-Alcohol/acetone mix
-Safranin (Secondary)

35

2 Groups of Acid fast stains?

-Acid fast (Mycolic acids) retains the stain.
-Nonacid fast (No mycolic acids)

36

Color for gram positive stain?

Purple

37

Color for gram negative stain?

Pink

38

Color for acid fast stain?

Redish

39

Color for endospore stain?

Malachite green

40

Example of a prokaryote?

Bacteria

41

Is a prokaryote unicellular or multi?

Unicellular

42

What makes up the cell walls of prokaryotes?

Peptidoglycan

43

Does a prokaryote have a nucleus?

NO

44

Reproduction of Prokaryote?

Sexual

45

Example of Eukaryotes?

Amoeba

46

Are Eukaryotes unicellular or multi?

Multicellular

47

What makes up the cell walls of Eukaryotes?

Cellulose

48

Do Eukaryotes have a nucleus

YES

49

Reproduciton of Eukaryote?

Sexual and Nonsexual

50

4 types of flagella

-Peritricchous- All around
-Lophotrichous and polar- More than one on one end
-Monotrichous and polar- 1 on one end
-Amphitrichous and polar-