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Flashcards in Chapter 8 Deck (43):
1

Study of what genes are, how they carry information, how information is expressed, and how genes are replicated.

Genetics

2

All the DNA in organism

Genome

3

Structures compressed of neatly packed DNA molecule.

Chromosomes

4

How many chromosomes do humans have?

46

5

How many chromosomes do bacteria have?

1 or 2

6

Segment of DNA that encodes a functional product (protein or RNA molecule)

Genes

7

What are the 3 types of genes

-Structural genes (proteins)
-Genes that code for RNA
-Regulatory genes (control gene expression)

8

Code of DNA. A, T, C, G.

Genotype

9

Expression of genes. (Black hair, curly hair, eye color, etc....)

Phenotype

10

A plasmid is an independent, circular, self-replicating DNA molecule.

Plasmid

11

What are the Nitrogenous bases?

-Adenine
-Thymine
-Cytosine
-Guanine

12

How do the Nitrogenous bases bond in DNA?

A-T
C-G

13

What is the 'backbone' of DNA

Deoxyribosephosphate

14

How are the strands of DNA held together?

By H bonds.

15

What is the name of Sugar for DNA

Deoxyribose

16

What is the name of Sugar for RNA

Ribose

17

How do the Nitrogenous bases bond for RNA?

A-U
C-G

18

RNA

Ribonucleic acid

19

DNA

Deoxyribonucleic acid

20

Types of Plasmids?

-Resistance factors
-Fertility factors
-Bacteriocin factors
-Virulence plasmids

21

The copy of DNA into two daughter cells that are exactly the same.

DNA Replicaiton

22

One strand in DNA replication acts as template.

Complementary structure

23

One daughter cell gets the new, one gets the old.

Semiconservative.

24

Opens strand of DNA in replicaiton

Helicases

25

Adds nucleotides in DNA replication.

DNA Polymerase

26

Adds primer (RNA) In DNA replication

Primase

27

Seals gaps in DNA replication

Ligase

28

DNA Nucleotides are what ratio?

5:3

29

Which DNA strand has Okasaki fragments?

The lagging strand

30

What are the two stages of proteinsynthesis?

-Transcription
-Translation

31

Making of messenger RNA from a segment "Gene" of DNA.

Transcription

32

DNA or RNA polymerase. Has proofreading?

DNA polymerase

33

Types of RNA transcribed from DNA

-Messenger RNA
-Transfer RNA
-Ribosomal RNA

34

The making of protein through mRNA

Translation

35

Stop codons are also called what?

Nonsense codon

36

Mutation that occurs but does not change the amino acid being synthesized.

Silent mutation.

37

tRNA binding sites. What happens in site A?

Arrival of codene. All but the first.

38

tRNA bingding sites. What happens in site P?

Protein growth. First codene comes here

39

tRNA binding sites. What happens in site E?

Codenes exit.

40

Where does translation occur?

On the Ribosomes

41

Change in the nucleotide base sequence of a genome, rare.

Mutation

42

Decendents of cell that does not successfully repair a mutation

Mutants

43

Test to see if a chemical is carcinogenic to humans

The Ames tests