Chapter 17 Flashcards Preview

Microbiology > Chapter 17 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 17 Deck (29):
1

Defenses against any pathogen

Innate immunity

2

Induced resistance to a specific pathogen

Adaptive immunity

3

How to get adaptive immunity

-Getting sick
-Vaccines

4

Also called adaptive immunity

Specific immunity

5

Bodys third line of defence

Specific immunity

6

Specific immunity due to two types of lyphocytes

-B lymphocytes (B cells)
-T lymphocytes (T cells)

7

A substance that causes the body to produce specific antibodies or sensitized T cells.

Antigen (ag)

8

Examples of antigens (5)

-Bacterial capsules
-Cell walls
-Flagella
-Fibriae
-Toxins

9

Specific region of Ag that combines with products of the I.S. Binding sites.

Antigenic determinant

10

Is a globular protein made in response to a specific antigen.

Antibody (ab) or Immunoglobulin (Ig)

11

Are chemical messengers released primarily by helper T cells.

Cytokines

12

Produce antibodies

B cells

13

Secrete cytokines

T cells

14

Antigen presenting cells

-Macrophages
-Dendritic cells

15

What happens if you don't have cytokines?

No immunity.

16

How does the immune system recognize itself/nonself?

Markers called Major Histocompatability Complex cells. Monitor the expression of MHC class 1 molecules. If the cell has class 1 that is empty it is left alone. I it presents with a virus it is killed on contact.

17

Cells of the specific imune system

Lymphocytes

18

Stay in bone marrow. Mature in bone marrow and acquire receptors (specific shape). Programed to make specific antibody. Secrete antibodies in fluids. Involved in humoral immunity.

B cells

19

Acquire receptors (Specific shape) in thymus. Cellular (cell to cell interaction). Antigen must be presented to them.

T cells

20

B Cell receptors can recognize ag in its natural state. For example: ...............
Before these agents enter the cells.

-Bacteria in blood.
-Viruses in blood.
-Toxins in the blood.

21

When a B cell encounters its triggering antigen it gives rise to what?

-Plasma cells
-Memory cells

22

Shape of Antibody

Y
2 heavy chains
2 Light chains
Y arms vary greatly (To accommodate millions of possibilities)

23

Functions of antibodies?

Agglutination (Group together)
Opsonization
Activation of complement
Neutralization
Antibody dependent cell mediated cytotoxicity

24

Most abundant antibody (in blood)

IgG

25

Which antibody crosses the placenta?

IgG

26

Which antibody is found on secretions

IgA

27

Which antibody is largest?

IgM

28

Triggers memory cells

T dependent antibodies

29

What happens when a B cell encounters a antigen? (Antigenic stimulation)

Produce plasma cells and memory cells which produce antibodies.