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Flashcards in Chapter 1 Deck (28):
1

The study of the structure of the body.

Anatomy

2

The study of function; deals with the ways organisms perform vital activities.

Physiology

3

The study of embryonic development, focusing on the first 2 months after fertilization.

Embryology

4

The study of cells.

Cytology

5

The study of tissues.

Histology

6

Changes in activity that maintain homeostasis in direct response to changes in the local environment; does not require neural or endocrine control.

Autoregulation

7

Results from the activities of the nervous system or endocrine system.

Extrinsic Regulation

8

A sensor that is sensitive to a particular environmental change.

Receptor

9

Receives and processes the information supplied by the receptor and sends out commands.

Control Center

10

A cell or organ that responds to the commands of the control center and whose activity either opposes or enhances the stimulus.

Effector

11

A corrective mechanism that opposes or negates a variation from normal limits.

Negative Feedback

12

A mechanism that increases a deviation from normal limits after an initial stimulus.

Positive Feedback

13

Lying face up, with palms facing anteriorly.

Supine

14

Lying face down with the palms facing the floor.

Prone

15

A sectional plane that divides the body into an anterior portion and a posterior portion; also called coronal plane.

Frontal Plane

16

A sectional plane that divides the body into left and right portions.

Sagittal Plane

17

Any muscular partition; the respiratory muscle that separates the thoracic cavity from the abdominopelvic cavity.

Diaphragm

18

Division of the ventral body cavity that is superior to the abdominopelvic cavity that is bounded by the chest wall.

Thoracic Cavity

19

The portion of the ventral body cavity that contains abdominal and pelvic subdivisions; also contains the peritoneal cavity.

Abdominopelvic Cavity

20

Organs in the ventral body cavity.

Viscera

21

Subdivisions of the thoracic cavity that contain the lungs.

Pleural Cavities

22

The central tissue mass that divides the thoracic cavity into two pleural cavities.

Mediastinum

23

The space between the parietal pericardium and the epicardium (visceral pericardium) that covers the outer surface of the heart.

Pericardial Cavity

24

The inferior subdivision of the abdominopelvic cavity; encloses the urinary bladder, the sigmoid colon and rectum, and male or female reproductive organs.

Pelvic Cavity

25

The maintenance of a relatively constant internal environment.

Homeostasis

26

Exists when opposing processes or forces are in balance.

State of Equilibrium

27

Lies at right angles to the long axis of the body, dividing it into superior and inferior portions.

Transverse

27

An axis; three are needed to describe any three-dimensional object.

Plane