Chapter 12 Corrected Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 12 Corrected Deck (24):
1

The period between the initiation of an action potential and the restoration of the normal resting potential; during this period, the membrane will not respond normally to stimulation.

Refractory Period

2

A propagated change in the transmembrane potential of excitable cells, initiated by a change in the membrane permeability to sodium ions.

Action Potential

3

Neuroglia responsible for the neurilemma that surrounds axons in the peripheral nervous system.

Schwann Cells

4

Surround neuron cell bodies in ganglia; they regulate the environment around the neurons, much as astrocytes do in the CNS.

Satellite Cells

5

Phagocytic neuroglia in the central nervous system.

Microglia

6

Central nervous system neuroglia that maintain cellular organization within gray matter and provide a myelin sheath in areas of white matter.

Oligodendrocytes

7

One of the four types of neuroglia in the central nervous system; responsible for maintaining the blood-brain barrier by the stimulation of endothelial cells.

Astrocytes

8

Cells of the central nervous system and peripheral nervous system that support and protect neurons; also called glial cells.

Neuroglia

9

Also known as efferent neurons, form the efferent division of the PNS. These neurons carry instructions from the CNS to periphery effectors in a peripheral tissue, organ, or organ system.

Motor Neurons

10

An association neuron; central nervous system neurons that are between sensory and motor neurons.

Interneurons

11

A chemical compound released by one neuron to affect the transmembrane potential of another.

Neurotransmitter

12

The site of communication between a nerve cell and some other cell; if the other cell is not a neuron, the term neuromuscular or neuroglandular junction is often used.

Synapse

13

The efferent division of the nervous system that innervates skeletal muscles.

Somatic Nervous System

14

Centers, nuclei, tracts, ganglia, and nerves involved in the unconscious regulation of visceral functions; includes components of the central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system.

Autonomic Nervous System

15

A peripheral gland or muscle cell innervated by a motor neuron.

Effectors

16

Sensory structures that either detect changes in the internal environment or respond to the presence of specific stimuli.

Receptors

17

The elongated extension of a neuron that conducts an action potential.

Axons

18

All neural tissue outside the central nervous system.

Peripheral Nervous System

19

The brain and spinal cord.

Central Nervous System

20

A compound found in tobacco that binds to specific ACh receptor sites and stimulates the synaptic membrane.

Nicotine

21

A fatal disease caused by a virus that reaches the CNS via retrograde flow along peripheral axons.

Rabies

22

A compound that disrupts normal nervous system function by interfering with the generation or propagation of action potentials.

Neurotoxin

23

A genetic abnormality involving the metabolism of gangliosides, important components of neuron plasma membranes.

Tay-Sachs Disease

24

Neuromodulators, produced in the central nervous system, that inhibit activity along pain pathways. Neuropeptides produced in the brain and spinal cord that appear to relieve pain and affect mood.

Endorphins