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Flashcards in Chapter 13 Corrected Deck (29):
1

Found at the foramen magnum of the skull, the spinal meninges are continuous with these,, which surround the brain.

cranial meninges

2

A series of specialized membranes surrounding the spinal cord, provide the necessary physical stability and show absorption.

spinal meninges

3

The outermost component of the cranial and spinal meninges.

dura mater

4

The space between the spinal dura mater and the walls of the vertebral foramen; contains blood vessels and adipose tissue; a common site of injection for regional anesthesia.

epidural space

5

Fluid bathing the internal and external surfaces of the central nervous system; secreted by the choroid plexus.

cerebrospinal fluid

6

The innermost layer of the meninges bound to the underlying neural tissue.

pia mater

7

A dense layer of collagen fibers that surrounds a peripheral nerve.

epineurium

8

The middle layer, its fibers extend inward from the epineurium.

perineurium

9

A delicate network of connective tissue fibers that surrounds individual nerve fibers.

endoneurium

10

A bundle of postganglionic sympathetic nerve fibers that are distributed to effectors in the body wall, skin, and limbs by way of a spinal nerve.

gray ramus

11

A nerve bundle containing the myelinated preganglionic axons of sympathetic motor neurons en route to the sympathetic chain or to a collateral ganglion.

white ramus

12

A complex interwoven network of nerves.

nerve plexus

13

Functional groups of interconnected neurons.

neuronal pool

14

Result from the connections that form between neurons during development; generally appear in a predictable sequence.

innate reflexes

15

Complex, learned motor patterns. They are rapid and automatic, but are also learned rather than preestablished.

acquired reflexes

16

Provide a mechanism for the involuntary control of the muscular system.

somatic reflexes

17

Also known as autonomic reflexes, control the activities of other systems.

visceral reflexes

18

An enhancement of spinal reflexes. Happens when many of the excitatory synapses are chronically active, and the postsynaptic neuron enters a state of generalized facilitation.

reinforcement

19

A spinal reflex in infants, consisting of a fanning of the toes in response to stroking the sole of the foot; in adults, a _______ sign indicates CNS injury.

Babinski sign

20

The injection of anesthetic into the epidural space to eliminate sensory and motor innervation via spinal nerves in the area of injection.

epidural block

21

An inflammation of the meninges involving either the spinal cord or the brain; generally caused by bacterial or viral pathogens.

meningitis

22

Regional losses of sensory and motor function as a result of nerve trauma, disease, or compression.

nerve palsies

23

Paralysis involving a loss of motor control of the lower, but not eh upper, limbs.

paraplegia

24

A stretch reflex resulting from the stimulation of stretch receptors in the quadriceps muscles.

patellar reflex

25

A spinal reflex in adults, consisting of a curling of the toes in response to stroking the side of the foot sole.

plantar reflex

26

Paralysis involving the loss of sensation and motor control of the upper and lower limbs.

quadriplegic

27

A condition caused by the infection of neurons in dorsal root ganglia by the varicella-zoster virus. The primary sign is a painful rash along the sensory distribution of the affected spinal nerves.

shingles

28

A procedure in which cerebrospinal fluid is rumbaed from the subarachnoid space through a needle, generally inserted between the lumbar vertebrae.

spinal tap

29

A spinal tap performed between adjacent lumbar vertebrae inferior to the conus medullaris.

lumbar puncture