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Flashcards in Chapter 1 Deck (33):
0

Hindsight Bias

The tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that one would have foreseen it (I-knew-it-all-along)

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Critical thinking

Thinking that examines assumptions, discerns hidden values, evaluates evidence, and assesses conclusions

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Theory

An explanation that organizes and predicts observations

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Hypothesis

A testable prediction, often implied by a theory

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Operational Definitions

A statement of procedures (operations) used to define variables -- it allows us to measure variables

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Replicate

Repeating the essence of a research study, usually with different situations, to see whether the basic finding extends to other participants and circumstances

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Case study

An observation technique on which one person is studied in depth in the hope of revealing universal principles (of us all), can suggest hypotheses for future study

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Survey

A technique used to find out the self-reported attitudes or behaviors of people, usually by questioning a representative, random sample of them

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False Consensus Effect

The tendency to overestimate the extent to which others share our beliefs and behaviors

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Population

All the cases in a group, from which samples may be drawn for a study (except for national studies)

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Random Sample

A sample that fairly represents a population because each member has an equal chance of inclusion

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Naturalistic Observations

Observing and recording behavior in naturally occurring situations without trying to manipulate and control the situation

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Correlation

A measure of the extent to which two factors vary together, and thus of how well either factor predicts the other

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Scatter plots

A graphed cluster of dots, each of which represents the values of two variables. The slope of the points suggests the direction of the relationship between the two variables. He amount of scatter suggests the strength of the correlation. Little scatter indicates higher correlation.

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Illusory Correlation

The perception of a relationship

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Experiment

A research method in which an investigator manipulates one or more factors (independent variable) to observe the effect on some behavior or mental process (dependent variable). Random assignment controls the factors.

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Double-blind procedure

Experimental procedure in which both the research participants and the research staff are blind about whether the research participants have received the treatment or a placebo (drug evaluation studies).

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Placebo Effect

Experimental results caused by expectations alone; any effect on behavior caused by the administration of an inert substance or condition, which is assumed to be an active agent

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Experimental Condition

The condition of an experiment that exposes participants to the treatment, that is, to one version of the independent variable *apply independent variable

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Control Condition

The condition of an experiment that contrasts with the experimental condition that serves as a comparison for evaluating the effect of the treatment *do not apply independent variable

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Random Assignment

Assigning participants to experimental and control conditions by chance, thus minimizing preexisting differences between those assigned to the different groups (experiments)

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Independent Variable

The experimental factor that is manipulated; the variable whose effect is being studied (violent tv watching)

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Dependent Variable

The outcome factor; the variable that may change in response to manipulations of the independent variable (people engaging in violent acts)

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Overconfidence

Thinking we know more than we do

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Scientific method

Making observations, forming theories, then refining the theories in the light of new observations

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Mode

The most frequently occurring score in a distribution (mode most)

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Mean

The arithmetic average of a distribution, obtained by fading the scores and then dividing by the number of scores (mean average)

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Median

The middle score in a distribution; half of the scores are above it and half the scores are below (median middle)

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Range

The difference between the highest and lowest scores in a distribution

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Standard deviation

A computed measure of how much scores vary around the mean score

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Statistical significance

A statistical statement if how likely it is that an obtained result occurred by chance

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Culture

The enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, and traditions shared by a large group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next

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Wording effects

How something is worded and affects the opinion of the audience