Chapter 12 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 12 Deck (28):
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Motivation

A need or desire that energizes and directs behavior factors that influence initiation, direction, intensity, and persistence of behavior

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Instinct

A complex behavior that is rigidly patterned throughout a species and is unlearned

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Drive-Reduction

The idea that a physiological need creates an aroused tensions state (a drive) that motivates an organism to satisfy the need

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Homeostasis

A tendency to maintain a balanced or constant internal state; the regulation of any aspect of body chemistry, such as blood glucose, around a particular level

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Incentives

A positive or negative environmental stimulus that motivates behavior

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Optimal Arousal Theory

Curiosity-driven behaviors, for example, suggest that too little as well as too much stimulation can motivate people to seek optimum levels of arousal

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Abraham Maslow

Created hierarchy or needs

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Hierarchy of Needs

States that we all have that awesome in us

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Glucose

The form of sugar that circulates in the blood and provides the major source of energy for body tissues. When it's level is low, we feel hunger

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Set Point

The point at which an individual's "weight thermostat" is supposedly set. When the body falls below this weight, an increase in hunger and a lowered metabolic rate may act to restore the lost weight

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Basal Metabolic Rate

The body's resting rate of energy expenditure

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Anorexia Nervosa

When a normal weight person (usually an adolescent female) diets and becomes significantly (15% or more) underweight, yet, still feeling fat, continues to starve

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Bulimia Nervosa

When episodes of overheating, usually of high-calorie foods, are followed by vomiting, laxative use, fasting, or excessive exercise

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Alfred Kinsey

Asked people about sexual questions, mostly well-educated white urbanites

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Sexual Response Cycle

The four stages of sexual responding described by Masters and Johnson - excitement, plateau, orgasm, and resolution

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Refractory Period

A resting period after orgasm, during which a man cannot achieve another orgasm

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Sexual Disorder

A problem that consistently impairs arousal or functioning

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Estrogen

A sex hormone, secreted in greater amounts by females than by males. In nonhuman female mammals, estrogen levels peak during ovulation, promoting sexual receptivity

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Testosterone

The most important of the male sex hormone. Both males and females have it, but the additional testosterone in males stimulates the growth of the male sex organs in the fetus and the development of the male sex characteristics during puberty

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Sexual Orientation

An enduring sexual attraction toward members of either ones own sex (homosexual orientation) or the other sex (heterosexual orientation)

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Flow

A completely involved, focused state of consciousness, with diminished awareness of self and time, resulting from optimal engagement of ones skills

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Industrial-Organizational Psychology

The application of psychological concepts and methods to optimizing human behavior in workplaces

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Personnel Psychology

A sub field of I/O psychology hat focuses on employee recruitment, selection, placement, training, appraisal, and development

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Organizational Psychology

A sub field of I/O psychology that examines organizational influences on parolee satisfaction and productivity and facilitates organizational change

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Structured Interview

Interview process that asks the same job-relevant questions of all applicants, each of whom is rated on established scales

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Achievement Motivation

A desire for significant accomplishment; for mastery of things, people, or ideas, for attaining a high standard

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Task Leadership

Goal-oriented leadership that sets standards, organizes work, and focuses attention on goals

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Social Leadership

Goal-oriented leadership that builds teamwork, mediates conflict, and offers support