Chapter 15 Part 1 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 15 Part 1 Deck (27):
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Personality

An individuals characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling, and acting

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Sigmund Freud

Focused largely on the role of our unconscious and our childhood experiences in determining personality

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Free Association

In psychoanalysis, a method of exploring the unconscious in which the person relaxes and says whatever comes to mind, no matter how trivial or embarrassing

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Psychoanalysis

Freud's theory of personality that attributes thoughts and actions to unconscious motives and conflicts; the techniques used in treating psychological disorders by seeking to expose and interpret unconscious tensions

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Unconscious

The part of the mind that contains material of which we are unaware but that strongly influences our behavior

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Id

The unconscious system of personality, consisting of basic sexual and aggressive drives, that supplies psychic energy to personality (devil)

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Ego

The conscious division of personality that attempts to mediate between the demands of the id, superego, and reality (umpire)

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Superego

The division of personality that contains the conscience and develops by incorporating the perceived moral standards of society (angel)

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Psychosexual Stages

The childhood stages of development (oral, anal, phallic, latency, genital) during which, according to Freud, the id's pleasure-seeking energies focus on distinct erogenous zones

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Oedipus Complex

According to Freud, a boys sexual desires toward his mother and feelings of jealousy and hatred for the rival father

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Identification

The process by which, according to Freud, children incorporate their parents' rules into their developing superegos

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Fixate

According to Freud, a lingering focus of pleasure-seeking energies at an earlier psychosexual stage in which conflicts were unresolved

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Defense Mechanisms

There are certain specific means by which the ego unconsciously protects itself by distorting reality

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Denial

The refusal to accept the reality of something that makes you anxious

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Repression

In psychoanalytic theory, the basic defense mechanism that banishes anxiety-arousing thoughts, feelings, and memories from consciousness

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Regression

Psychoanalytic defense mechanism in which an individual faced with anxiety retreats to a more infantile psychosexual stage, where some psychic energy remains fixated

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Reaction Formation

Causes the ego to unconsciously switch unacceptable impulses into their opposites. People may express feelings of purity when they may be suffering anxiety from unconscious feelings about sex

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Projection

When people disguise their own threatening impulses by attributing them to others

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Rationalization

Defense mechanism that offers self-justifying explanations in the place of the real, more threatening, unconscious reasons for one's actions

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Displacement

Psychoanalytic defense mechanism that shifts sexual or aggressive impulses toward a more acceptable or less threatening object or person, as when redirecting anger toward a safer outlet

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Alfred Adler

Thought up the inferiority complex -- a pattern of avoiding feelings of inadequacy rather than trying to overcome their source

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Karen Horney

Agreed that the childhood was important, but that social, not sexual tensions are crucial for personalit formation; tried to counter Freud's assumptions

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Carl Jung

Thought up archetypes (an inherited idea based on the experiences of one's ancestors, which shapes one's perceptions of the world) and collective unconsciousness

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Collective Unconsciousness

Carl Jung's concept of a shared, inherited reservoir of memory traces from out species' history

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Projective Tests

An unstructured test in which a person is asked to respond freely, giving his or her own interpretation of various ambiguous stimuli

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TAT

A projective test in which people express their inner feelings and interests through the stories they make up about ambiguous scenes

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Rorschach Inkblot Test

This test consists of a series of 10 cards with Inkblot designs and a system for interpreting responses. 5 are black and gray, 2 have red splotches, and 3 have a mixture of different colors