Chapter 18 Part 1 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 18 Part 1 Deck (20):
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Social Psychology

The scientific study of how we think about, influence, and relate to one another

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Attribution Theory

Suggests how we explain someone's behavior - by crediting either the situation or the person's disposition

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Fundamental Attribution Error

The tendency for observers, when analyzing another's behavior, to underestimate the impact of the situation and to overestimate the impact of a personal disposition

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Attitudes

Feelings, often based on our beliefs, that predispose us to respond in a particular way to objects, people, and events

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Foot-in-the-door-phenomenon

The tendency for people who have first agreed to a small request to comply later with a larger request

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Philip Zimbardo -- Stanford Prison Experiment

Assessing people's attitudes before and after they adopt a new role, the guards and prisoners took it too seriously and the study had to end early

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Cognitive Dissonance Theory

We act to reduce the discomfort we feel when two of our thoughts are inconsistent. When our awareness of our attitudes and of our actions clash, we can reduce the discomfort by changing our attitudes

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Conformity

Adjusting one's behavior or thinking to coincide with a group standard (Solomon Asch - 1955)

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The Asch Conformity Experiment

Confederates of an experiment choosing the wrong answer cause the experimental volunteer to agree with them so as not to be the odd one out (line test)

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Normative Social Influence

Influence resulting from a person's desire to gain approval or avoid disapproval (individual conformity)

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Information Social Influence

Influence resulting from one's willingness to accept others' opinions about reality (group conformity)

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Stanley Milgram's Obedience Experiment

Participants were required to give electric shocks to people that got answers wrong on a memory test, the shocks got stronger each time

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Social Facilitation

Stronger responses on simple or well-learned tasks in the presence of others

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Social Loafing

The tendency for people in a group to exert less effort when pooling their efforts toward attaining a common goal than when individually accountable

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Deindividuation

The loss of self-awareness and self-restraint occurring in group situations that foster aroudal and anonymity

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Group Polarization

The enhancement of a group's prevailing inclinations through discussion within the group

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Groupthink

The mode of thinking that occurs when the desire for harmony in a decision-making group overrides a realistic appraisal of alternatives

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Prejudice

An unjustifiable (and usually negative) attitude toward a group and it's members. Prejudice generally involves stereotyped beliefs, negative feelings, and a predisposition to discriminatory action ---- influence, sway, unjust

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Stereotype

A generalized (sometimes accurate but often over generalized) belief about a group of people

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Discrimination

Unjustifiable behavior toward a group or it's members