Chapter 8 - Part 2 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 8 - Part 2 Deck (23):
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Successive Approximation

Reward responses that are ever-closer to the final desired behavior, and ignore all other responses -- rat pressing bar example

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Positive Reinforcement

(Add something positive) increasing behaviors by presenting positive stimuli, such as food. A positive reinforcer is any stimulus that, when presented after a response, strengthens the response

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Negative Reinforcement

(Take away something negative) increasing behaviors by stopping or reducing negative stimuli, such as shock. A negative reinforcer is any stimulus that, when removed after a response, strengthens the response (NOT punishment)

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Primary Reinforcers

An innately reinforcing stimulus, such as one that satisfies a biological need

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Conditioned (secondary) Reinforcers

A stimulus that gains it's reinforcing power through its association with a primary reinforcer; also known as secondary reinforcer

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Positive Punishment

Add something negative

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Negative Punishment

Take away something positive

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Continuous Reinforcement

Reinforcing the desired response every time it occurs

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Partial (intermittent) Reinforcement

Reinforcing a response only part of the time; results in slower acquisition of a response but much greater resistance to extinction than does continuous reinforcement

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Fixed-Ratio Schedules

In operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response only after a specified number of responses

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Variable-Ratio Schedules

In operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response after an unpredictable number of responses

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Fixed-Interval Schedules

In operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response only after a specified time has elapsed

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Variable-Interval Schedules

In operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response at unpredictable time intervals

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Punishment

An event that decreases the behavior that it follows

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Latent Learning

Learning that occurs but is not apparent until there is an incentive to demonstrate it

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Cognitive Map

A mental representation of the layout of one's environment. For example, after exploring a maze, rats act as if they have learned a cognitive map of it

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Intrinsic Motivation

A desire to perform a behavior for its own sake

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Extrinsic Motivation

A desire to perform a behavior due to promised rewards or threats of punishment

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Observational Learning

Learning by observing others

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Modeling

The process of observing and imitating a specific behavior

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Mirror Neurons

Frontal lobe neurons that fire when performing certain actions of when observing another doing so. The brains mirroring of another's action may enable imitation, language learning, and empathy

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Albert Bandura

Conducted Bobo doll experiment, observational learning

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Prosocial Behavior

Positive, constructive, helpful behavior, the opposite of antisocial behavior