Chapter 10 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 10 Deck (28):
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Cognition

The mental activities associated with thinking, knowing,remembering, and communicating

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Concepts

Mental grouping of similar objects, ventral ideas, or people

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Prototypes

A mental image or best example of a category

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Algorithm

Step-by-step procedures that guarantee a solution

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Heuristic

A simple thinking strategy that often allows us to make judgements and solve problems efficiently; usually speedier but also more error prone than algorithms (mental shortcuts)

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Insight

A sudden and often novel realization of the solution to a problem (all of a sudden the answer comes to you), provides a sense of satisfaction

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Confirmation Bias

A tendency to search for information that confirms ones preconceptions (women better drivers example)

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Fixation

The inability to see a problem from a new perspective; an impediment to problem solving [once you were stuck on the matchsticks being two-dimensional, it was hard to view them as three-dimensional]

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Mental Set

A tendency to approach a problem in a particular way, often a way that has been successful in the past

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Functional Fixedness

Inability to solve a problem because it is viewed only in terms of usual function (activity)

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Representative Heuristic

Judging the likelihood of hints in terms of how well they seem to represent, or match, particular prototypes; may lead one to ignore other relevant information

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Availability Heuristic

Estimating the likelihood of events based on their availability in memory; if instances come readily to mind (perhaps because of their vividness), we presume such events are common

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Overconfidence

The tendency to be more confident than correct - to overestimate the accuracy of ones beliefs and judgements

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Framing

The way an issue is posed; how an issue is framed can significantly affect decisions and judgements (10% die, 90% live example)

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Belief Bias

The tendency for ones preexisting beliefs to distort logical reasoning, sometimes by making invalid conclusions seem valid, or valid conclusions seem invalid

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Belief Perseverance

Clinging to ones initial conceptions after the basis on which they were formed has been discredited

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Language

Spoken, written, or signed words that we combine to communicate meaning to ourselves and others

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Phoneme

The smallest distinctive sound unit ---> bat = b, a, and t

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Morpheme

The smallest unit that carries meaning; may be a word or part of a word (such as a prefix)

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Grammar

A system of rules that enable us to communicate with and understand others

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Semantics

The set of rules by which we derive meaning in a given language; also, the study of meaning (adding -ed means in the past)

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Syntax

The rules for combining words into grammatically sensible sentences in a given language (English, adjectives before nouns)

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Babbling Stage

Beginning at 4 months, the infant spontaneously utters various sounds at first unrelated to the household language

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One-Word Stage

The stage in speech development, from about age 1 to 2, during which a child speaks mostly in single words

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Two-Word Stage

Beginning about age 2, the stage in speech development during which a child speaks mostly in two-word statements

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Telegraphic Speech

Early speech stage in which a child speaks like a telegram - "go car" using mostly nouns and verbs and omitting auxiliary words

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Noam Chomsky

One of the most famous linguists of all times, he believed that language will naturally occur, given adequate nurture

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Linguistic Determinism

Benjamin Lee Whorf's hypothesis that language determines the way we think