Chapter 1-3 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 1-3 Deck (45)
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What are the 4 external body barriers?

1. Skin
2. Mucus
3. Body Fluid Secretions
4. Friendly Bacteria


How does skin protect?

1. Destroys bacteria because of lactic acid and fatty acids in sweat and low pH generated by sebaceous secretions.


How does Mucus protect?

1. Bacteria cant attach to body.
2. Cilia remove the trapped foreign particles.


How does body fluid secretion protect and what are examples?

1. Removes bacteria and foreign particles for the body. Tears, saliva, cerumen, and urine
2. Tears, gastric juice, semen, nasal secretions and saliva contain bactericidal components that destroy pathogens..


How does friendly bacteria protect the body?

Bacteria in the vagina produce lactic acid and metabolize glycogen secreted by the vaginal epithelium. When these friendly bacteria are killed by antibiotic use, glycogen increases and allows yeast (Candida Albicans) to grow, producing vaginal cadidiasis.


What is the inflammation steps?

1. Injury/Infection
2. Dilation of blood vessels (which causes permeability)
3. Permeability Increases (ability to pass through)
4. Leukocytes leave the blood vessel (diapedesis)
5. Phagocytosis (destroying foreign material)


What is chemotaxis?

The process of bringing luekocytes to the area of infection.


What is phagocytosis?

White blood cells destroying foreign material.


What do the chemical mediators do?

Draw the leukocytes to the area of infection. Process known as chemotaxis.


What are the six links in the chain of infection?

1. Pathogen = the disease causing agent
2. Reservoir = the habitat
3. Portal of exit = leaves source host
4. Transmission = how the pathogen is passed
5. Portal of entry = enters host
6. New host


What is a pathogen and examples?

1. The disease causing agent.
a. virus
b. bacteria
c. rickettsiae
d. protozoa
e. fungi & yeast
f. nematoda


What are examples of a Reservoir?

The habitat in which an infectious agent normally lives and grows.
1. Human
2. Animal
3. Environmental: Plants, soil, & water


What is the portal of exit?

The path by which an agent leaves the source host?


What are the two modes of transmission?

1. Direct: handshake, kissing, droplet spray
2. Indirect: (there was a barrier) Using touching or ingesting any contaminated object or food


What is portal of entry?

The path by which the agent enters the susceptible host.
ex. respiratory, oral, skin, intravenous, gastrointestinal


What is a fungus (yeast & mold)?

Aka: Mycoses - present in soil, air, and water.
*Thrive in warm, dark, moist places.
ex. ringworm or athletes foot


What is a virus?

Smallest disease causing agent and borrows cell's machinery to reproduce.


What are the two types of parasites?

1. Protozoa = single celled
2. Metazoa = Multi-cellular


What is a Protozoa?

A single-celled parasitic animal
*release toxins/enzymes that destroy cells or interfere with function
ex. malaria


What is a Metazoa?

Multi-cellular parasitic animal (worms) that competes for the body's food.
ex. tapeworm, roundworm, (Ascariasis)


What are the four different types of head trauma?

1. Concussion
2. Cerebral Contusions
3. Skull fracture
4. Perforated eardrums


What is a concussion?

Temporary neural dysfunction. No brain bleeding.
Feeling dazed or very brief loss of consciousness.


What is a Cerebral Contusion?

Bruising of brain tissue, bleeding in skull.
Loss of consciousness, persistent vomiting, blurred vision, staggered walk, hemorrhage, even death.


What is a skull fracture?

Accompanied by scalp wounds and profuse bleeding, pain, tenderness, and swelling.


What is Abdominopelvic Trauma?

Trauma to internal organs such as liver, spleen, pancreas, kidneys, stomach. Blood loss is concern and normally surgery is used to correct the injury.


What is a benign tumor?

A tumor that will not spread.


What is a malignant tumor?

A tumor that can spread. The spreading is called mestasis, or the process of it is metastasizing.


What is acquired immunity?

The body has developed the ability to defend itself.


What is Neoplasm?

A new formation or new growth?


What are the 4 different types of immunity?

1. Active Natural - produce your own Ex. exposed and now producing
2. Active Artificial - someone has given them to you Ex. vaccine
3. Passive Natural - Mother to baby Ex. Breastfeeding
4. Passive Artificial - Take someone's antibodies and give to self to fight infection