Flashcards in Lesson 8 Cardiovascular and Lymphatic System Deck (67)
What are the three types of Carditis?
What is Pericarditis and the ETIOLOGY?
inflammation of pericardium -the outside layer of heart (saclike imembrane around heart)
etiology: 1. RHEUMATIC FEVER makes you at risk
2. idiopath (unknown cause)
What is Myocarditis?
inflammation of cardiac muscle and conduction system without evidence of MI
What is the etiology of Myocarditis?
1. viral or bacterial infection
What is the treatment for Myocarditis?
S&S of Myocarditis?
1. dypsnea - difficulty breathing
3. palpitation or racing heartrate
4. may have had an infection
What are the S&S of Pericarditis?
1. sharp sudden pain (pleuric) in chest from layers rubbing while breathing
What is Endocarditis?
inflammation of membrane lining the valves and chamber of heart
S&S of Endocarditis?
1. night sweats - fever for weeks
Etiology of Endocarditis?
infection - group A strep bacteria
Treatment of Endocarditis?
1. eliminate infecting organ
2. surgery to repair valve
Treatment of Pericarditis?
bed rest with chest elevated w/analgesics
How to diagnose Pericarditis?
P=Auscultation may reveal grating sound as hear beats.
Medical history - reveal upper respiratory infection.
medical history reveal predisposing factors and new heart murmur
What is Mitral Insufficiency?
blood from left ventricle flowing back in the left atrium
What is Mitral Stenosis?
blood flow is obstructed from left atrium to left ventricle
What is the etiology of Mitral Insufficiency/Stenosis?
1. Childhood Rhuematic fever
2. infective endocarditis
S&S of Mitral Insufficiency/Stenosis?
1. Difficulty breathing when laying down (orthopnea)
2. large jugular veins
Treatment for Mitral Insufficiency?
surgical replacement with artificial valve
What is Aortic insufficiency?
blood flowing back into the left ventricle causing it to swell (causing left ventricular hypertrophy)
What is Aortic Stenosis?
Prevents blood from flowing freely from left ventricle to the Aorta. (Valve has become
What is the etiology of Aortic Insufficiency/Stenosis?
1. Rheumatic Fever
What are the S&S of Aortic Insufficiency/Stenosis and how to diagnose?
S = may be asymptomatic,
1. angina - severe pain in chest
D = Auscultation may reveal murmur
How to treat Aortic Insuff/Stenosis?
1. surgical replacement of aortic valve
2. Balloon valvuloplasty
3. assess yearly with ECG and echocardiogram
What is Essential Hypertension?
High blood pressure without a cause
(pressure exerted against the vessel wall)
Etiology of Essential Hypertension?
2. more common in african americans, obese, and stressed people
S&S of Essential Hypertension?
1. tinnitus (ringing in ears)
2. nocturia (urinating at night)
3. light headedness
4. tire easily
Diagnose Essential Hypertension?
1. blood pressure greater than 140/90mm
2. auscultation - hear abnormal sound (bruits)
3. ECG and chest x-ray will detect cardio damage