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Flashcards in Chapter 1 Deck (52):
1

storm and stress view

Hall's concept that adolescence is a turbulent time charged with conflict and mood swings

2

inventionist view

The view that adolescence is a sociohistorical creation.; especially important in this view are the sociohistorical circumstances at the beginning of the twentieth century, a time when legislation was enacted that ensured the dependency of youth and made their move into the economic sphere more manageable

3

cohort effects

characteristics related to a person’s date of birth, era, or generation rather than to his or her actual chronological age

4

millennials

The generation born after 1980, the first
to come of age and enter emerging adulthood in the new millennium. Two characteristics of Millennials stand out: (1) their ethnic diversity, and (2) their connection to technology

5

stereotype

a generalization that reflects our impressions and beliefs about a broad group of people; all stereotypes refer to an image of what the typical member of a specific group is like

6

adolescent generalization gap

Adelson’s concept of generalizations being made about adolescents based on information regarding a limited, often
highly visible group of adolescents

7

contexts

the settings in which development
occurs. These settings are influenced by historical, economic, social, and cultural factors

8

social policy

national government’s course of action designed to infl uence the welfare of its citizens

9

development

the pattern of change that begins at
conception and continues through the life span - most development involves growth, although it also includes decay (as in death and dying)

10

biological processes

physical changes in an individual's body

11

cognitive processes

changes in an individual's thinking and intelligence

12

sociemotional processes

changes in an individual’s personality, emotions, relationships with other people, and social contexts

13

prenatal period

the time from conception to birth

14

infancy

the developmental period that extends
from birth to 18 or 24 months of age

15

early childhood

the developmental period extending from the end of infancy to about 5 or 6 years of age; sometimes called the preschool years

16

middle and late childhood

the developmental period extending from about 6 to about 10 or 11 years of age; sometimes called the elementary school years

17

adolescence

the developmental period of transition from childhood to adulthood; it involves biological, cognitive, and socioemotional changes;
begins at approximately 10 to 13 years of age and ends in the late teens

18

early adolescence

the developmental period that corresponds roughly to the middle school or junior high school years and includes most pubertal change

19

late adolescence

the developmental period that corresponds approximately to the latter half of the second decade of life. Career interests, dating, and
identity exploration are often more pronounced in late adolescence than in early adolescence

20

early adulthood

the developmental period beginning in the late teens or early twenties and lasting through the thirties; focus on personal and economic independence, career development

21

middle adulthood

the developmental period that
is entered at about 35 to 45 years of age and exited at about 55 to 65 years of age; focus on reflecting on life, transmitting values to the younger generation, and worrying about physical deterioration

22

late adulthood

the developmental period that lasts from about 60 to 70 years of age until death; focus on adjusting to reduced income and physical deterioration

23

emerging adulthood

the developmental period occurring from approximately 18 to 25 years of age; this transitional period between adolescence and adulthood is characterized by experimentation and exploration; key features include identity exploration, instability, self-focus, feeling in between, and the age of possibilities

24

resilience

adapting positively and achieving
successful outcomes in the face of significant risks and adverse circumstances

25

nature-nurture issue

issue involving the debate
about whether development is primarily influenced by an organism’s biological inheritance (nature) or by its environmental experiences (nurture)

26

continuity-discontinuity issues

issue regarding whether development involves gradual, cumulative change (continuity) or distinct stages (discontinuity)

27

early-later experience issues

issue focusing on the degree to which early experiences (especially early in childhood) or later experiences are the key determinants of development

28

thoery

an interrelated, coherent set of ideas that helps explain phenomena and make predictions

29

hypotheses

specific assertions and predictions
that can be tested

30

psychoanalytic theories

theories that describe development as primarily unconscious and heavily
colored by emotion - behavior is merely a surface characteristic, and the symbolic workings of the mind have to be analyzed to understand behavior; early experiences with parents are emphasized

31

Erikson's theory

theory that includes eight stages
of human development, where each stage consists of a unique developmental task that confronts individuals with a crisis that must be faced

32

Piaget's theory

a theory stating that children actively construct their understanding of the world and go through four stages of cognitive
development - sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational, and formal operational

33

Vygotsky's theory

a sociocultural cognitive theory
that emphasizes how culture and social interaction guide cognitive development

34

information-processing theory

A theory emphasizing that individuals manipulate information, monitor it, and strategize about it - central to this approach are the processes of memory and thinking

35

social cognitive theory

the view that behavior, environment, and person/cognition are the key factors in development

36

Bronfenbrenner's ecological theory

A theory focusing on the influence of five environmental systems: microsystem, mesosystem, exosystem, macrosystem, and chronosystem

37

eclectic theoretical orientation

an orientation that does not follow any one theoretical approach but rather selects from each theory whatever is considered the best in it

38

labratory

a controlled setting in which many of the complex factors of the “real world” are removed

39

naturalistic observation

observation of behavior in real-world settings

40

standardized test

a test with uniform procedures for administration and scoring; many standardized tests allow a person’s performance to be compared with the performance of other individuals

41

experience sampling method (ESM)

research method that involves providing participants with electronic pagers and then beeping them at random times, at which point they are asked to report on various aspects of their lives

42

case study

an in-depth look at a single individual

43

descriptive research

research that aims to observe and record behavior

44

correlational research

research whose goal is to describe the strength of the relationship between two or more events or characteristics

45

correlation coefficient

a number based on a statistical analysis that is used to describe the degree of association between two variables

46

experimental research

research that involves an experiment, a carefully regulated procedure in which
one or more of the factors believed to influence the behavior being studied are manipulated while all other factors are held constant

47

independent variable

the factor that is manipulated in experimental research

48

dependent variable

the factor that is measured in experimental research

49

cross-sectional research

a research strategy that involves studying different people of varying ages all at one time

50

longitudinal research

a research strategy in which the same individuals are studied over a period of time, usually several years or more

51

gender bias

a preconceived notion about the abilities of females and males that prevents individuals from pursuing their own interests and achieving their potential

52

ethnic gloss

use of an ethnic label such as African
American or Latino in a superficial way that portrays an ethnic group as being more homogeneous than it really is