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Flashcards in Chapter 4 Deck (30):
1

self

all the characteristics of a person

2

self-understanding

the individual’s cognitive representation of the self; the substance and content of self-conceptions

3

possible self

what individuals might become, what they would like to become, and what they are afraid of becoming

4

perspective taking

the ability to assume another person’s perspective and understand his or her thoughts and feelings

5

self-esteem

the global evaluative dimension of the self; also referred to as self-worth or self-image

6

self-concept

domain-specific evaluations of the self

7

narcissim

a self-centered and self-concerned approach towards others

8

identity

who a person believes he or she is,
representing a synthesis and integration of self-understanding

9

identity vs. identity confusion

Erikson’s fifth developmental stage, which occurs during adolescence - at this time, individuals are faced with deciding who they are, what they are all about, and where they are going in life

10

psychosocial moratorium

Erikson’s term for the gap between childhood security and adult autonomy that adolescents experience as part of their identity exploration

11

crisis

a period of identity development during which the adolescent is choosing among
meaningful alternatives

12

commitment

the part of identity development in which adolescents show a personal investment in what they are going to do

13

identity diffusion

Marcia’s term for the state adolescents are in when they have not yet experienced an identity crisis or made any commitments

14

identity forclosure

Marcia’s term for the state adolescents are in when they have made a commitment but have not experienced an identity crisis

15

identity moratorium

Marcia’s term for the state of adolescents who are in the midst of an identity crisis but who have not made a clear commitment to an identity

16

identity achievement

Marcia’s term for an adolescent who has undergone an identity crisis and made a commitment

17

individuality

an important element in adolescent identity development - consists of two dimensions:
self-assertion, the ability to have and communicate a point of view; and separateness, the use of communication patterns to express how one is
different from others

18

connectedness

an important element in adolescent identity development - consists of two dimensions: mutuality, sensitivity to and respect for others’ views; and permeability, openness to others’ views

19

ethnic identity

an enduring, basic aspect of the self that includes a sense of membership in an ethnic
group and the attitudes and feelings related to that membership

20

bicultural identity

identity formation that occurs when adolescents identify in some ways with their
ethnic group and in other ways with the majority culture

21

intamcy vs. isolation

Erikson’s sixth developmental stage, which individuals experience during the early adulthood years; at this time, individuals face the developmental task of forming intimate relationships with others

22

emotion

feeling, or affect, that occurs when a person
is in a state or an interaction that is important to the individual, especially to his or her well-being

23

personality

the enduring personal characteristics of individuals

24

Big Five factors of personality

Five core traits of personality: openness to experience, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, and neuroticism (emotional stability)

25

optimism

involves having a positive outlook on the
future and minimizing problems

26

temperament

an individual’s behavioral style and
characteristic way of responding

27

easy child

a child who generally is in a positive mood, quickly establishes regular routines, and adapts easily to new experiences

28

difficult child

a child who reacts negatively to many situations and is slow to accept new
experiences

29

slow-to-warm-up child

a child who has a low activity level, is somewhat negative, and displays a low intensity of mood

30

goodness of fit

the match between an individual’s
temperament style and the environmental
demands faced by the individual