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Flashcards in Chapter 2 Deck (28):
1

puberty

a brain-neuroendocrine process occurring primarily in early adolescence that provides stimulation for the rapid physical changes that
accompany this period of development

2

hormones

powerful chemicals secreted by the endocrine glands and carried through the body by the bloodstream

3

androgens

the main class of male sex hormones

4

estrogens

the main class of female sex hormones

5

adrenarche

puberty phase involving hormonal changes in the adrenal glands, which are located just above the kidneys; these changes occur from about 6 to 9 years of age in girls and about one year later in boys, before what is generally considered the beginning of puberty

6

gonadarche

puberty phase involving the maturation of primary sexual characteristics (ovaries in females, testes in males) and secondary sexual characteristics (pubic hair, breast and genital development); this period follows adrenarche by about two years and is what most people think of as puberty

7

menarche

a girl's first menstrual period

8

spermarche

a boy's first ejaculation of semen

9

precocious puberty

the very early onset and rapid progression of puberty

10

secular trends

patterns of the onset of puberty over
historical time, especially across generations

11

female athlete triad

a combination of disordered eating, amenorrhea, and osteoporosis that may develop in female adolescents and college students

12

adaptive behavior

a modification of behavior that promotes an organism’s survival in the natural habitat

13

evolutionary psychology

an approach that emphasizes the importance of adaptation, reproduction, and “survival of the fittest” in explaining behavior

14

chromosomes

threadlike structures that contain deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA

15

DNA

a complex molecule that contains genetic
information

16

genes

the units of hereditary information, which
are short segments composed of DNA

17

genotype

a person’s genetic heritage; the actual genetic material

18

phenotype

the way an individual’s genotype is
expressed in observed and measurable characteristics

19

behavioral genetics

the field that seeks to discover the
influence of heredity and environment on individual differences in human traits and development

20

twin study

a study in which the behavioral
similarity of identical twins is compared with the behavioral similarity of fraternal twins

21

adoption study

q study in which investigators seek to discover whether the behavior and psychological characteristics of adopted children are more like their adoptive parents, who have provided a home environment, or more like those of their biological parents, who have contributed their heredity - another form of adoption study involves comparing
adopted and biological siblings

22

passive genotype-environment correlations

correlations that occur because biological parents, who are genetically related to the child, provide a rearing environment for the child

23

evocative genotype-environment correlations

correlations that occur because an adolescent’s genetically shaped characteristics elicit certain types of physical and social environments

24

active (niche-picking) genotype-environment
correlations

correlations that occur when children seek out environments that they find compatible
and stimulating

25

shared environmental experiences

siblings’ common experiences such as their parents’ personalities and intellectual orientation, the family’s socioeconomic status, and the neighborhood in which they live

26

nonshared environmental experiences

the adolescent’s own unique experiences, both within a family and outside the family, that are not shared by a sibling

27

epigenetic view

belief that development is the result of an ongoing bidirectional interchange between heredity and environment

28

gene x environment (G x E) interaction

the interaction of a specific measured variation in the DNA and a specif c measured aspect of the environment