Chapter 10 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 10 Deck (15):

constructivist approach

a learner-centered approach that emphasizes the adolescent’s active, cognitive construction of knowledge and understanding with guidance from the teacher


direct instruction approach

a teacher-centered approach characterized by teacher direction and control, mastery of academic skills, high expectations for students, and maximum time spent on learning tasks


top-dog phenomenon

the circumstance of moving from the top position (in elementary school, the oldest, biggest, and most powerful students) to the
lowest position (in middle or junior high school, the youngest, smallest, and least powerful students)


authoritative strategy of classroom management

a teaching strategy that encourages students to be independent thinkers and doers but still involves effective monitoring - authoritative teachers engage students in considerable verbal give-and-take and show a caring attitude toward them; however, they
still set and enforce limits when necessary


authoritarian strategy of classroom management

a teaching strategy that is restrictive and punitive, the focus is mainly on keeping order in the classroom rather than on instruction and learning


permissive strategy of classroom management

a teaching strategy that offers students considerable autonomy but provides them with little support for developing learning skills or managing their behavior


jigsaw classroom

a classroom strategy in which students from different cultural backgrounds are placed in a cooperative group in which, together, they have to construct different parts of a project to reach a common goal


multicultural education

education that values diversity and includes the perspectives of a variety of cultural groups


learning disabilities

disabilities in which children experience difficulty in learning that involves understanding or using spoken or written language; the difficulty can appear in listening, thinking, reading, writing, and spelling. a learning disability also may involve difficulty in doing mathematics. to be classified as a learning disability, the learning problem is not primarily the result of visual, hearing, or motor disabilities; intellectual disability; emotional disorders; or environmental, cultural, or economic disadvantage.


attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)

a disability in which children or adolescents consistently show one or more of the following characteristics over a period of time: (1) inattention, (2) hyperactivity, and (3) impulsivity


public law 94-142

the Education for All Handicapped Children Act, which requires all students with disabilities to be given a free, appropriate public education


individuals with disabilities education act (IDEA)

federal legislation spelling out broad mandates for providing educational services to all children and adolescents with disabilities - these include evaluation and eligibility determination, appropriate education and an individualized education plan (IEP), and education in the least restrictive environment


least restrictive environment (LRE)

a setting that is as similar as possible to the one in which children or adolescents without a disability are educated; under the IDEA, efforts to educate the child or adolescent with a disability in this setting have been
given a legal basis



educating a child or adolescent with special
educational needs full-time in the regular classroom


adolescents who are gifted

adolescents who have above-average intelligence (usually defined as an IQ of 130 or higher) and/or superior talent in some domain, such as art, music, or mathematics