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Flashcards in Chapter 7 Deck (29):
1

moral development

thoughts, feelings, and behaviors regarding standards of right and wrong

2

preconventional reasoning

the lowest level in Kohlberg’s theory of moral development. at this level, morality is often focused on reward and punishment. the two stages in preconventional reasoning are punishment and obedience orientation (stage 1) and individualism, instrumental purpose, and exchange (stage 2)

3

conventional reasoning

The second, or intermediate, level in Kohlberg’s theory. individuals abide by certain standards (internal), but they are the standards of others (external), such as parents or the laws of society. the conventional level consists of two stages: mutual interpersonal expectations, relationships, and interpersonal conformity (stage 3) and social systems morality (stage 4)

4

postconventional reasoning

the third and highest level in Kohlberg’s theory. at this level, morality is more internal. the postconventional level consists of two stages: social contract or utility and individual rights (stage 5) and universal ethical principles (stage 6)

5

justice perspective

a moral perspective that
focuses on the rights of the individual - individuals make moral decisions independently

6

care perspective

the moral perspective of Carol
Gilligan, which views people in terms of their
connectedness with others and emphasizes
interpersonal communication, relationships with others, and concern for others

7

social cognitive theory of moral development

the theory that distinguishes between moral
competence (the ability to produce moral
behaviors) and moral performance (enacting those behaviors in specific situations

8

altruism

unselfish interest in helping another person

9

forgiveness

an aspect of prosocial behavior that
occurs when an injured person releases the injurer from possible behavioral retaliation

10

gratitude

a feeling of thankfulness and appreciation, especially in response to someone doing something kind or helpful

11

ego ideal

the component of the superego that involves ideal standards approved by parents

12

ego conscience

the component of the superego that involves behaviors disapproved of by parents

13

empathy

reaction to another’s feelings with an emotional response that is similar to the other’s feelings

14

moral identity

an aspect of personality that is present when individuals have moral notions and commitments that are central to their lives

15

moral exemplars

people who have lived exemplary lives

16

domain theory of moral development

theory that identifies different domains of social knowledge and reasoning, including moral, social conventional, and personal domains. these domains arise from
children’s and adolescents’ attempts to understand and deal with different forms of social experience

17

social conventional reasoning

thoughts about social consensus and convention, as opposed to moral reasoning that stresses ethical issues

18

love withdrawal

a discipline technique in which a parent withholds attention or love from the adolescent

19

power assertion

a discipline technique in which a parent attempts to gain control over the adolescent or the adolescent’s resources

20

induction

a discipline technique in which a parent uses reason and explains how the adolescent’s actions affect others

21

hidden curriculum

the pervasive moral atmosphere that characterizes every school

22

character education

a direct moral education approach that involves teaching students a basic moral literacy to prevent them from engaging in
immoral behavior or doing harm to themselves or others

23

values clarification

an educational approach that focuses on helping people clarify what is important
to them, what is worth working for, and their
purpose in life - students are encouraged to define their own values and understand others’ values

24

cognitive moral education

an approach based on the belief that students should learn to value things like democracy and justice as their moral reasoning develops; Kohlberg’s theory has been the basis for many of the cognitive moral education approaches

25

service learning

a form of education that promotes social responsibility and service to the community

26

values

beliefs and attitudes about the way things
should be

27

religion

an organized set of beliefs, practices, rituals, and symbols that increases an individual’s
connection to a sacred or transcendent other (God, higher power, or higher truth)

28

religiousness

the degree of affiliation with an organized religion, participation in prescribed rituals and practices, connection with its beliefs, and involvement in a community of believers

29

spirituality

experiencing something beyond oneself in a transcendent manner and living in a way that benefits others and society