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Flashcards in Chapter 1 Deck (54):
1

Human communication

Human communication is the process of interacting with other people, both verbally and non-verbally to share and understand ideas.

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action model

A model that views the communication process as a linear transmission of messages and identifies the following important components of the communication process: sender, message, code, encoding and decoding, channel, receiver, and noise

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androgynous

Communication style that includes a balance between the traditional masculine and feminine characteristics - used especially in effective leadership of small groups and teams

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channel

The means of transmitting code including the five senses and various media such as face-to-face, telephone, or text messages

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co-culture

Smaller groups of people who are bound by shared values, beliefs, attitudes, rules, and norms and interact with those of the larger culture

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collectivistic cultures

Cultures who are oriented to the welfare of the group (community, tribe, clan, etc.) and value group connection, interdependence, cooperation, consensus, meeting one's obligations, and fitting in

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computer mediated communication

The way people communicate via computers

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context

The situation in which a particular communication takes place. Contexts include intrapersonal, interpersonal, group, organizational, public, and mass communication situations to name a few

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Coordinated Management of Meaning Theory (CMM)

According to CMM, two people who are interacting socially, construct the meaning of their conversation. Each of the individuals is also comprised of an interpersonal system which helps explain their actions and reactions.

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culture

A system of values, beliefs, attitudes, rules, and norms shared by a group of people

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decoding

The process the receiver goes through in attempting to interpret or make sense of the symbols included in a message.

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dyad

Two people communicating with each other.

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encoding

The process the sender goes through in choosing symbols used in a message

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environment

Another word for context; the part of the communication context that relates specifically to the physical surroundings in which the communication occurs

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ethics

A system of moral principles that governs the conduct of people and their relationships with others

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ethnocentrism

The assumption that one's own cultural perspective is superior to that of others

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expressive communication

Communication with the goal of establishing and maintaining harmonious relationships. Women are often considered to be expressive communicators

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external noise

Distractions in the environment, such as loud sounds or unusual movement in your surroundings, that cause you to be unable to effectively compose your thoughts as you speak to others or make it difficult to decode the messages you are receiving

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feedback

The verbal and visual response of the receiver to the sender's message

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frame of reference

An individual perspective and view of the world that differs from other views due to such factors as self-concept, values, beliefs attitudes, culture, gender, and age

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gender

Refers to the cultural and psychological constructions of social roles and personal identity and are classified by the terms masculine, feminine, or androgynous. Gender is not the same as the term sex, which refers to biological characteristics that are classified as male or female.

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group communication

Sometimes referred to as "multiple dyads," in which three or more people interact with each other in order to accomplish a meaningful objective.

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high-context cultures

Cultures in which people's understanding of what is being communicated is based on the nature of the physical situation. High-context cultures tend to be fairly collectivistic, and listen by paying less attention to the actual words spoken and more to the context such as the groups to which the speaker belongs (community, family, or organization), the speaker's status and age, the background and history of the topic or situation, and the speaker's nonverbal gestures and expressions.

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individualistic cultures

Cultures oriented toward the accomplishments of the individual person and value such concepts as independence, self-reliance, competition, personal opinion, personal rights, and reaching one's full potential

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instrumental communication

Communicating with the purpose of accomplishing some goal - men are often considered to be instrumental communicators

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interaction model

A communication model that views communication as message exchange or a circular process involving feedback. The interaction model is a more accurate view of communication than the action model strategy.

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internal noise

Refers to any number of things that you may be experienceing physiologically or psychologically that cause you to have difficulty listening to messages.

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interpersonal communication

Communication that occurs "between people"

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intrapersonal communication

Communication that occurs within a person - "self-talk." It is how people think when they are alone, and how they process messages even when they are communicating with others

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lean medium channel

A communication medium that carries only one code and does not permit the reception of nonverbally encoded messages

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low-context cultures

Cultures in which people's understanding of what is being communicated is based on the nature of the physical situation. Low-context cultures tend to be fairly individualistic. In low-context cultures, people listen carefully to the actual words spoken and give only minor attention to the context in which the message occur

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mass communication

Communication where a single individual or company sends a message to a receiver who is not immedediately present

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message

The idea, thought, or feeling one wishes to convey through communication

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models

Visual representations of the component parts of a real process

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negotiated meaning

The concept that meaning doesn't exist on its own but results from give and take and compromise as the communicators arrive at a meaning for various symbols in order to accomplish their goals

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noise

Anything that interferes with successfully sending and receiving messages

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nonverbal code

The part of a message that encompasses anything and everything that isn't language (such as gestures, posture, facial expressions, eye contact, and the vocal elements that accompany words, including tone of voice, volume, rate, and pitch)

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norms

The implied standards of acceptable behavior in a given situation or context; rules that are not clearly spelled out but are "known" or "assumed"

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organizational communication

Communication involving individuals, dyads, and groups communicating with other individuals, dyads, and groups. Messages penetrate several layers and, therefore, are often very complicated and ripe for distortion

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physiological noise

An internal noise from some physical condition that gets in the way of effective sending or receiving of messages

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psychological noise

An internal noise related to your thoughts and emotions that gets in the way of effective sending or receiving of messages

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public communication

Communication in a "one-to-many" situation in which a single speaker addresses a defined audience as exemplified by an oral presentation

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receiver

The person toward whom a particular message is aimed

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reframe

Recasting or reframing a communication situation from the perspective of the communication partner

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rich medium channel

Channels that convey both verbal and nonverbal information are rich channels. Channels that convey only one channel are considered to be lean because they convey less information

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rules

Explicit group standards of acceptable behavior that are explicitly spelled out in a given situation or context

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self-monitoring

A mental process used by mindful communicators who are aware of what they are doing verbally and nonverbally as well as how others are responding to them

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semantic noise

An internal noise affecting successful sending or receiving of messages that occurs because people use language for which meanings are not shared

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sender

The person who initiates the communication process

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sex

Either the male or female division of a species, especially as differentiated with reference to the reproductive functions.

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symbols

Something that represents something else, such as a word that represents an idea or a facial expression that represents mood

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transaction model

The most accurate model of communication where communicators both send and receive simultaneously, both parties are responsible for the outcome of the interaction, and each affects and is affected by the other

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transactional process

An exchange in which both parties are responsible for the outcome of the interaction and each affects and is affected by the other

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verbal code

The part of a message that is language (including written or spoken words)