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Flashcards in Chapter 1: Final Deck (27):
1

Nutrition

is a science that studies how nutrients and compounds in foods we eat affect the body’s functions and health

2

Essential Nutrient

A nutrient that must be consumed in the diet because it cannot be made by the body in sufficient quantities to maintain body function.

3

Calorie

A unit of measure used to express the amount of energy provided by food.

4

Nutrient Density

A measure of the nutrients provided by a food relative to its calorie content.

5

Fortification

The addition of nutrients to foods.

6

Phytochemical

A substance found in plant foods that is not an essential nutrient, but may have health promoting properties.

7

Functional Food

A food that has health promoting properties beyond basic nutrition.

8

What are the six classes of nutrients?

Carbohaydrates
Lipids
Proteins
Water
Vitamins
Minerals

9

Macronutrients

Nutrients needed in large amounts. This includes;
Carbohydrates
Lipids
Proteins
Water

10

Micronutrients

Nutrients needed in small amounts including;
Vitamins
Minerals

11

Carbohydrates

A class of nutrients that include sugars, starches, and fibers. Chemically, they all contain carbon along with hydrogen and oxygen, in the same proportions as in water.

12

Fiber

A type of carbohydrate that cannot be broken down by human digestive enzymes.

13

Lipids

A class of nutrients that is commonly called fats. Chemically, they contain carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, and most of them do not dissolve in water.

14

Cholesterol

A type of lipid that is found in the diet and in the blood. High blood levels increase the risk of heart disease.

15

Saturated Fat

A type of lipid that is most abundant in solid animal fats and is associated with an increased risk of heart disease.

16

Unsaturated Fat

A type of lipid that is most abundant in plant oils and is associated with a reduced risk of heart disease.

17

Protein

A class of nutrients that includes molecules made up of one or more intertwining chains of amino acids.

18

What purpose does Water serve to the body?

water acts as a lubricant, transport fluid, and regulator of temperature.

19

Vitamins

Organic molecules that are needed in small amounts to maintain health.

20

Approx. how many vitamins are there?

there are about 13 vitamins

21

Minerals

Essential nutrients needed in small amounts to provide a variety of diverse functions in the body.

22

What are the three "energy-yeilding nutrients?"

Carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins.

23

Kilocalories

Those that appear on nutrition info. on food. (truly unit of 1000 calories).

24

Scientific method

A systematic, unbiased approach used to gain new information and knowledge.

25

What are the four steps of the scientific method?

1. Observation
2. Hypothesis (proposed explanation of observation)
3. Experiment (testing the hypothesis)
4. Theory (formal explanation based off experiment)

26

What are the three functions of nutrients?

Energy
Strucutre
Regulate body processes

27

Of the top ten causes of death in the US, what four are related to nutrition?

1. Heart Disease
2. Cancer
3. Stroke
4. Diabetes