Exam 3: Chapter 10 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Exam 3: Chapter 10 Deck (23):
1

Fitness

The ability to perform routine physical activity without undue fatigue.
May reduce the risk of chronic disease.

2

Aerobic Metabolism

Metabolism which uses oxygen, glucose, protein and fat to produce energy within the mitochondria.
This method of energy production is more efficient than anaerobic metabolism.

3

Anaerobic Metabolism

Metabolism which uses only glucose(no oxygen) to produce energy.
This method generates lactic acid.

4

Aerobic Capacity

the maximum capacity of an individual's body to transport and use oxygen during incremental exercise, which reflects the physical fitness of the individual

5

Ergogenic Aid

Substance, application, or procedure that aims in improving athletic performance.

6

The Overload Principle

"The more you do, the more you are capable of doing."

7

What are the four basic components of fitness?

1. Cardio-Respiratory Endurance
[Vigorous (aerobic) exercise over time ]
2. Muscle Strength and Muscle Endurance
[Using muscles to perform tasks]
3. Flexibility
[Range of motion around a joint]
4. Body Composition
[Proportion of muscle, fat, water and other tissues]

8

What is the difference in the average lean and fat body mass between a fit and unfit adult male?

A fit adult male has and average of 88% lean body mass with 12% body fat.
A unfit adult male has an average of 75% lean body mass with 25% body fat.

9

What are the two sources of the glucose used in both aerobic and anaerobic metabolism?

These two methods of metabolism can use glucose that is stored in muscle glycogen and blood glucose.

10

How do you calculate someone's maximum heart rate and anaerobic zone?

Maximum heart rate can be determined by subtracting the 220 by the persons age.
A persons anaerobic zone is about 60-80% of their maximum heart rate. Therefore it can be calculated by multiplying the person's max heart rate by 0.6-0.8.

11

What type of energy metabolism is used during the first few minutes of exercise?

Anaerobic metabolism
Therefore you can only use glucose for fuel.

12

What # physiological changes occur in response to exercise?

More oxygen is delivered to the muscles

13

What is the difference in energy requirements between athletes and non athletes?

higher in athletes because they burn more.

14

Why are most athletes at risk for dehydration and hyponatremia?

Because they move faster, jump higher and ultamatly burn off more resources than everyone else.

15

What are recommended foods and drinks during exercise that spans over an hour?

Carbohydrates from glucose and fructose [fructose should be combined with glucose]

Sports drinks, gels, food

16

What are snack recommendations for pre and post-exercise?

Before exercise, eat foods high in carbs, moderate in protein, and low in fat and fiber.

After exercise, eat something high in carbs, and somthing that will replenish your fluids!

Post-exercise Ex: Chocolate Milk!

Make sure you replenish your fluids and carbs

17

Anabolic Steroids

synthetic hormones that mimic testosterone

18

What are some health risks associated with the use of anabolic steroids?

stunting of growth in teens
behavioral changes
Oilyskin, acne
Water retention
Coronary artery disease
Liver disease

19

What are the reported effects of Creatine?



supplements used to make creatine phosphate, specifically in muscles.

Used in short, high-intensity events
There is no benefit with endurance events.

20

Instant energy is energy that is burned within the first few seconds of exercise, short-term energy is burned after that for the next few minutes, then long term energy for the remainder of the workout.

Where does the energy come from during instant energy burn, short term burn and long term burn?

Instant energy is gained from stored ATP.
Short term energy is gained from the anaerobic metabolism of glucose.
Long term energy is gained from aerobic metabolism of fatty acids and glucose to produce ATP.

21

What are the reported effects of Erythropoeitin?

stimulates red blood cell production to help transport more oxygen around the body.

Blood clot, heart attacks, and strokes are side effects.

22

What are the reported effects of Caffeine?

improves endurance
Allows body to use fatty acids

23

What are the reported effects of Carnitine?

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