Exam 3: Chapter 11 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Exam 3: Chapter 11 Deck (38):

What is the role of the placenta in nourishing the fetus?

it transfers nutrients and oxygen from the mothers blood into the fetal blood.

It also secrets hormones that support pregnancy and removes waste.


What is the Gestation period and how long does it last?

The time from conception to birth.
Lasts approx. 40 weeks.
Split up into trimesters.


Pre-embryo phase

The period from conception to week two.


When does the embryotic phase take place, and what happens?

This is the period from week 3 to 8.
The placenta begins to form and is completed by week 5.
This is the period of gestation most susceptible to harm and defects.


What is the recommended weight gain by a pregnant woman in each trimester?

1st Trimester: No weight gain required.

2nd Trimester: Increased energy requirements by 340 kcal/day.

3rd Trimester: Increased energy requirements by 452 kcal/day.


True or False?

During the pregnancy, the mother should not worry about increasing her intake of the essential fatty linoleic and alpha-linolenic acids.

The mother should INCREASE her intake of the essential fatty acids.


During a pregnancy, Docosahexaenoic acid is needed to support growth of the baby's _______ and ________ _________.

During a pregnancy, Docosahexaenoic acid is needed to support growth of the baby's Eyes and Nervous system.


Approximately how many pounds of weight should a pregnant mother gain? And how many pounds account for the fetus and the maternal fat?

The mother should gain a total of 25-35 lbs during a pregnancy.
Fetus - 7-8lbs
Maternal Fat - 4-11lbs


Why is morning sickness, constipation, and heartburn common among preggo women?

Morning sickness - no one knows he true cause. might be hormones.

Constipation - the relaxed muscles of the colon are less efficient during pregnancy due to the weight of the baby on it.

Heartburn - The baby puts pressure on the stomach and the upper esophageal sphincter becomes relaxed during pregnancy and allows stomach acid to leak into the esophagus.


Gestational Diabetes

High blood glucose levels that develop while pregnant.


What are the five risk factors of developing gestational diabetes?

1. Being overweight
2. Over 25 years old
3. Family history of diabetes
4. Being Hispanic, African American, Native American Pacific islander
5. Previously given birth to a large baby


What are the four risk factors with pregnancy induced hypertension

1. Has been diagnosed with HTN before pregnancy.
2. Diagnosed with kidney disease before pregnancy.
3. Under 18 or over 35 yrs old.
4. Low income mothers


What are the negative effects of gestational diabetes for the infant? what about the mother?

- large birth weight
- Increases risk of Diabetes later
- Low blood glucose after delivery.
- 20-50% chance of developing diabetes within the next 5-10 years.


What are the four benefits of exercise during pregnancy?

1. Prevents excess weight gain
2. Reduces risk of hypertension
3. Prevents constipation
4. Speedy recovery after pregnancy



high blood pressure with severe edema and protein in the urine from pregnancy induced hypertension.

It may reduce blood flow to the fetus.


What is the major cause of death of women during pregnancy?



What nutrients are needed during lactation and why?

Folate - Because it is secreted in breast milk


What are the effects of alcohol, mercury, caffeine, and drug use on the outcome of pregnancy?

Alcohol causes birth defects.
Mercury is poisonous.
Excess Caffeine can result in low-birth-weight babies, and miscarriages.


Why does pregnancy increase the susceptibility to food borne illnesses?

Because the immune system is weakened from the course of pregnancy


What food acquired bacteria is of great concern for pregnant women and what is it found in?

Listeria monocytogenes
found in: Uncooked hotdogs, Lunch meat, Unpasteurized milk and cheese.


What are the hormones that trigger breast milk production and letdown?

Prolactin Triggers PROduction
Oxytocin - Triggers Letdown[milk moving to the nipple]


What are the water and energy needs of lactating women?

Pregnant women should consume an additional 1 liter of water daily.
Should consume and additional 330 cals for the first six months and 400 cals for the second six months.



The watery milk-like substance produced by the breasts after the birth, that helps boost the baby's immune system. it contains vitamins, minerals, and a little protein.


What is the nutrient composition of mature milk?

High lactose for energy, more digestible form of protein
(alpha-lactalbumin), Easily digestabe form of fat DHA AA.


What vitamins and minerals should be supplemented in an infant?

Vitamin K
Vitamin D


How are growth charts used to monitor the nutritional well-being of infants?

Growth charts state that a baby's weight should double by 4-6 months.


What is the expected rate of growth of an infant during the first year?

Birth weight should triple by 12 months.


What five factors should be considered before food is introduced to an infant?

1. Does the child have mature GI and Kidneys?
2. Has tongue-thrust reflex faded by 4-6 months?
3. Has swallowing skills matured adequately?
4. Does the infant have head, neck and back control?
5. Can the infant turn away when he/she is full?


How should food be introduced to infants and in what order?

Solid foods should be introduced gradually to make sure the infant isn't allergic or intolerant.
One new food per week
Rice cereal is a great first food because it is the least allergy-causing grain.


What are the six benefits of breast feeding compared to those of formula feeding?

1. Bonding with your baby
2. Less expensive
3. More convenient
4. Helps the uterus return to its normal size
5. Weight loss
6. Reduces the risk of developing type 2 diabetes


What are some foods that should not be fed to infants and why?

No honey for the first year.
No foods that may be choking hazards.
No foods that are too high in protein.


True or False?

The RDA for Calcium increases with pregnancy.


During pregnancy, calcium absorption in the GI tract doubles.


True or False?

The RDA for Vitamin D increases when you become pregnant.


The RDA of Vitamin D Is the same for pregnant women and those aren't.



A condition which develops during pregnancy when preclampsia goes untreated that causes seizures and death.


True or False

An excess intake of preformed vitamin A during pregnancy can cause birth defects.

too much meat is bad for a preggo lady!!!


The leading cause of preventable birth defects is what?



True or False

Mercury is commonly found in all fish.

Mercury is commonly found in only larger, longer-living fish like sword fish and shark.


How old should the infant be when iron-enriched food are introduced?

4-6 months