Chapter 7 Lecture Vitamins Flashcards Preview

Nutrition > Chapter 7 Lecture Vitamins > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 7 Lecture Vitamins Deck (99):
1

Vitamins

Organic compounds essential in the diet to promote growth and maintaenance. Classified as water soluble or fat soluble.

2

What are the water soluble vitamins?

B-vitamins
Vitamin C
[These are not stored in the body in large amounts]

3

What are the fat soluble vitamins?

Vitamins A,D,E,K
[Stored in the body (liver and adipose tissue)]

4

What are the 7 B vitamins?

Thiamin
Riboflavin
Niacin
Biotin
Vitamin B6
Folate
Vitamin B12

5

After fat soluble vitamins are absorbed in the small intestine, where do they go?

They are absorbed directly into the lymphatic system.

5

After water soluble vitamins are absorbed in the small intestine, where do they go?

They are absorbed directly into the blood.

5

Approximately what percentage of vitamins consumed are absorbed in the small intestine?

Approximately 40-90% of vitamins are absorbed through the small intestine.

6

provitamins

vitamins that are consumed and absorbed in inactive precursor forms that must be converted into active forms by the body.

7

co-enzyme

Organic non-protein molecules carrying electrons, atoms, or chemical groups that participate in the reactions that bind to enzymes to promote their activity.

8

True or False?
Many of the co enzymes that we consume are b-vitamins.

True

9

Reactive Oxygen molecules (free radical)

Because of an imbalance of electrons, these molecules bounce around in our body and cause oxidative damage by stealing electrons from other compounds, causing changes in their structure and function.

10

Antioxidant

the molecule that either destroys or neutralizes reactive oxygen molecules.

11

True or False?

Vitamin C, E, and Selenium are all examples of antioxidants.

True

12

RDA and AI

The recommended amounts of vitamins necessary to prevent deficiencies and promote health.

13

Explain an "Upper limit" of a vitamin recommendation.

there is negative side effects of consuming too much of a certain vitamin.

14

AMDR RDA

?

15

Thiamin (B1)

First vitamin discovered
Serves as a coenzyme for metabolism of glucose and certain amino acids for energy.
Also aids in neurotransmitter production and proper nerve function.

16

What foods are a good source of thiamin?

Pork
Lentils
Speghetti
White bread
oatmeal

17

True or False
Enriched(white) bread has the same amount of thiamin as the whole wheat bread.

True
When white bread is processed and enriched from whole wheat bread, thiamin is one of the vitamins that is enriched back into the bread.

18

Beriberi

condition that is associated with neurological weakness. Causes fatigue, weaknesss, depression, poor coordination, and extreme conditions, paralysis due to a thiamin deficiency.

19

wernicke korsakoff syndrome

deficiency associated with alcohol abuse that progresses into a damaging brain disorder.

20

Riboflavin (b2)

Aids in the energy metabolism of carbohydrates, fats, and proteins.
Keeps cells healthy, and enhances functions of other b-vitamins, such as niacin and b12

21

What is the major food source of riboflavin?

Milk
pork

22

What are the symptoms from a deficiency of riboflavin?

Sores on the lining of the mouth, tongue, eyes. anywhere where cells are regenerated rapidly.

23

Niacin

Coenzyme for energy metabolism of carbohydrates, fat, and protein.
Essential in the synthesis of fat and cholesterol.
Maintaining health of skin cells and digestive system.

24


True or False?
Consuming tryptophan is one way to intake an appropriate amount of niacin.

True
Because the body uses tryptophan to make niacin.

25

what is the major food source of tryptophan?

Chicken

26

What are the symptoms of over consumption of niacin supplements?

Flushing
nausea
tingling of the extremeties
toxicity to the liver

27

Pellagra

niacin deficiency disease
Common in the south where a corn based diet is prominent.

28

What are the symptoms of pellagra known as "the four D's".

Dermatitus
Diarrihea
Dementia
Death

29

Vitamin B6

Functions as a coenzyme for over 100 enzymes in protein metabolism needed in the creation of nonessential amino acids, conversion of typtophan into niacin, and the breakdown of glycogen for glucose.

30

True or False?

Vitamin B6 helps create hemaglobin for the creation of red blood cells

True

31

What foods are good source of vitamin B6?

Meats

32

True or False?

Excess amounts of B6 through supplements may result in nerve damage.

True.

33

What are the symptoms of B6 deficiency?

Poor growth, skin lesions, poor immune response, numbness or tingling in extremities

34

Microcytic Anemia

Form of anemia where red blood cells are small and unable to carry oxygen throughout the body.

35

True or False
Elderly people who supplement their diet regularly with B6 have seen no effect on their overall health.

False.
Supplementation of B6 within the elderly has shown to improve immune function.

36

What are the functions of Folate?

Aids in amino acid metabolism
Coenzyme for DNA synthesis
Particularly important for rapidly dividing cells

37

What is the difference between folate and folic acid?

Folate is the naturally occurring form of the vitamin foundin food, while folic acid is the synthetic form of folate added to foods and supplements.

38

Which is absorbed by the body more easily, Folate or foilc acid?

Folic acid

39

What are some food sources of folate?

Enriched grains (rice, breads, pasta, cereal)
Legumes
Broccoli
Asparagus
Green Leafy Vegetables

40

What can a deficiency in folate lead to?

a deficiency in folate can lead to macrocytic anemia which is the formation of abnormally large red blood cells.

41

True or False?

High levels of Homocysteine in the blood may increase the risk of cardiovascular disease.

True

42

Inadequate intake of folate/folic acid before and during pregnancy can result in what?

neural tube defects
[spina bifida (that spin-a not-a there-a)]
[Anencephaly (baby anna dont got no skull)]

43

True or False?

There is no evidence that folate and folic acid reduces the risk of any type of cancers.

False
Intake of folic acid and folate may reduce the risk of colon, pancreatic, breast, and ovarian cancers.

44

What can a deficiency in Vitamin B12 result in?

Macrocytic anemia and nerve damage

45

What is the only water soluble vitamin stored in the body at significant amounts?

Vitamin B12

46

What vitamin is also called cobalamine because of its containing of the element cobalt?

Vitamin B12

47

What are the functions of vitamin B12?

1. ATP production from certain fatty acids
2. conversion of folate to active form
3. Homocysteine to methionine conversion.
4. Myelin coating of nerve cells

48

True or False?
Animal based foods are a good source of Vitamin B12.

True

49

Intrinsic Factor

a glycoprotein produced by the parietal cells of the stomach. It is necessary for the absorption of vitamin B12 later on in the small intestine.

50

True or False?

Those over 50 years in age should meet their B12 needs with supplements.

True

51

Atrophic Gastritis

The reduced ability to produce hydrochloric acid in the stomach.

52

Pernicious Anemia

A type of anemia that occurs from an inability to absorb vitamin B12 due to a lack of intrinsic factor.

53

What are the two functions of Biotin?

1. Coenzyme for energy metabolism and glucose synthesis.
2. Metabolizes fatty acids and amino acids.

54

True or False?

Biotin is made by bacteria in the GI.

True

55

What vitamin is also known as ascorbic acid?

Vitamin C

56

What is the most abundant protein in the body?

Collagen

57

Vitamin C helps in the production of what four substances of the body?

1. Collagen
2. Hormones
3. Neurotransmitters
4. Carnitine (needed for fat metabolism)

58

True or False?
Vitamin C breaks down histamine, supports the immune system, acts as an antioxidant, and regenerates vitamin E.

True

59

What would one eat more of to increase their intake of vitamin C?

Fruits and vegetables

60

True or False?
Smokers should intake the same amount of vitamin C than that of non smokers.

False.
Smoking accelerates the breakdown and elimination of Vitamin C in the body.

61

Scurvy

A condition brought from a deficiency in vitamin C that can be characterized by swollen and bleeding gums, rough rash on skin, coiled or curly hair arms, and wounds that wont heal.

62

True or false ?

The increased intake of vitamin C before a cold will prevent it from happening.

False.
Vitamin C cannot prevent colds, but it can shorten them.

63

What is the ONLY way to prevent colds?

Wash your hands with warm soapy water for at least 20 seconds.

64

What are the two forms of vitamin A found in food?

Preformed vitamin A
Provitamin A

65

True or False?

Because fat soluble vitamins can be stored in body fat, there is a reduced risk in deficiencies, but an increased risk of toxicities.

True

66

Preformed Vitamin A

Known as the "active form". This form is "preformed" and ready for your body to use.

67

What foods is preformed vitamin A only found?

Preformed vitamin A can be only found in animal based foods. [Because animals have already 'preformed' the vitamin for you to use.]

68

Provitamin A Carotenoids

Precursor to active form that can be only found in plants and is converted to preform in your body.

69

What are the four functions of provitamin A?

Production of different immune cells.
The health of epithelial tissue of the skin, intestines, lungs, and eyes.
Bone growth.
Fetal development.

70

True or False?

Beta-carotine acts as an antioxidant by neutralizing free radicals.

True

71

True or False?

Excess intake of preformed vitamin A can lead to toxicity.

True

72

What are some symptoms of preformed vitamin A toxicity?

Liver deterioration and scarring
increased risk of fractures
Increased risk of birth defects

73

True or False?

Excess intake of provitamin A can lead to toxicity.

False.
Our bodies have a built-in mechanism that will prevent conversion of more vitamin A than we need.

74

True or False?

A vitamin A deficiency can be caused by an insufficient intake of fat, protein or zinc.

True

75

A chronic vitamin A deficiency can lead to what?

a reversible state of nightblindness and the stunting of bones

76

True or False?

A prolonged vitamin A deficiency can lead to permanent damage to the cornea known as what?

xerophthalmia

77

What vitamin is known as the sunshine vitamin because of the the skin's ability to produce it from exposure to sunlight?

Vitamin D

78

What are some food sources of Vitamin D?

Liver, oily fish, and egg yolks

79

What are the two functions of vitamin D?

active form acts as a hormone that:
regulates calcium and phosphorous
helps maintain bone health

80

The intake of vitamin D may prevent the risk of what three forms of cancer and what three chronic diseases?

Breast, ovarian, colon, and prostate cancer
hypertension, Cardio vascular disease, and multiple sclerosis

81

Explain the activation process of vitamin D in the body.

look this up. what gland?

82

In adults and children, what can a vitamin D deficiency result in?

in children: Rickits, in adults: osteomalascia

83

alpha-tocopherol

the active form of vitamin E

84

What are the two functions of vitamin E?

Protects cell membranes
Prevent oxidation of LDL cholesterol

85

What are some food sources of vitamin E?

oily foods such as oils, seeds, and nuts

86

What are the two forms of vitamin K?

Menaquinone
Phylloquinone

87

Menaquinone

the form of vitamin K that is produced by intestinal bacteria.

88

Phylloquinone

The form of vitamin K that can be found in green plants.

89

What are the two functions of vitamin K?

Aids in bone health
Aids in blood clotting

90

Who would benefit most from dietary supplements?

Those on a diet for any reason
People who dont consume dairy produce
Those with dark pigmentation
cigarette smokers
vegans or vegetarians
older adults
young and pregnant women

91

True or False?

The production of dietary supplements is closely supervised by the FDA.

False
The FDA does not directly supervise the production of supplements.

92

The Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act (DSHEA)

defines what a dietary supplement is, and deferentiates itself from medication.
Establishes the labeling standards of producing dietary supplements.

93

Vitamin A deficiency can be caused by an insufficient intake of what three nutrients?

Fat
Protein
Zinc

94

True or False?

In the early stages, a chronic deficiency of vitamin A can lead to night blindness.

True

95

Xerophthalmia

#1 cause of preventable blindness in children of developing countries that may result in permanent damage to the cornea due to a deficiency of vitamin C.

96

What is known as the "sunshine vitamin" because it can be produced in the skin when it is exposed to UV light?

Vitamin D

97

What are some natural sources of vitamin D?

Liver
Oily fish
Egg yolks